Plant Growth Regulators II: Cytokinins, their Analogues and Antagonists

  • Edwin F. George
  • Michael A. Hall
  • Geert-Jan De Klerk


Plant Growth Regulator Adventitious Shoot Shoot Culture Shoot Proliferation Endogenous Cytokinin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Akiyoshi D.E., Morris R.O., Hinz R., Mischke B.S., Kosuge T., Garfinkel D.J., Gordon M.P. & Nester E.W. 1983 Cytokinin/auxin balance in crown gall tumors is regulated by specific loci in the T-DNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80, 407–411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson W.C. 1984 Micropropagation of filberts Coryllus avellana. Comb. Proc. Int. Plant Prop. Soc. 1983, 33 132-137.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson W.C. 1975 Propagation of rhododendrons by tissue culture. I. Development of a culture medium for multiplication of shoots. Comb. Proc. Int. Plant Prop. Soc. 25, 129–135.Google Scholar
  4. Arndt F., Rusch R. & Stillfried H.V. 1976 SN49537, a new cotton defoliant. Plant Physiol. 57, 599.Google Scholar
  5. Åstot C., Dolezal K., Nordströ M A., Wang Q., Kunkel T., Moritz T., Chua N-H. & Sandberg G. 2000 An alternative cytokinin biosynthesis pathway. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 14778–14783.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Baraldi R., Rossi F. & Lercari B. 1988 In vitro shoot development of Prunus GF655-2: interaction between light and benzyladenine. Physiol. Plant. 74, 440–443.Google Scholar
  7. Bassil N.V., Mok D.W.S. & Mok M.C. 1993 Partial purification of a cis-trans-isomerase of zeatin from immature seed of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Plant Physiol. 102, 867–872.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Beach K.H. & Smith R.R. 1979 Plant regeneration from callus of red and crimson clover. Plant Sci. Lett. 16, 231–237.Google Scholar
  9. Ben-Jaacov J., Ackerman A., Tal E. & Jacobs G. 1991 Vegetative propagation of Alberta magna by tissue culture and grafting. HortScience 26, 74.Google Scholar
  10. Beretta D. & Eccher T. 1987 Determination of optimum level of BAP, GA3 and IAA in micropropagation of Camellia by an orthogonal composite design. Acta Hortic. 212, 151–154.Google Scholar
  11. Bertrand L.J. & Lalonde M. 1985 In vitro-propagation and nodulation by Frankia of actinorhyzal Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.). Plant and Soil 87, 143–152.Google Scholar
  12. Binarova P., Dolezel J., Draber P., Heberle-Bors E., Strnad M. & Bogre L. 1998 Treatment of Vicia faba root tip cells with specific inhibitors to cyclin-dependent kinases leads to abnormal spindle formation. Plant J. 16, 697–707.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Biondi S., Canciani L. & Bagni N. 1984 Uptake and translocation of benzyladenine by elm shoots cultured in vitro. Can. J. Bot. 62, 2385–2390.Google Scholar
  14. Blakesley D. & Lenton J.R. 1987 Cytokinin uptake and metabolism in relation to shoot multiplication in vitro. pp. 87-99 in Jackson et al. (eds.) 1987a (q.v.).Google Scholar
  15. Blaydes D.F. 1966 Interaction of kinetin and various inhibitors in the growth of soybean tissue. Physiol. Plant. 19, 748–753.Google Scholar
  16. Bollmark M., Kubat B. & Eliasson L. 1988 Variation in endogenous cytokinin content during adventitious root formation in pea cuttings. J. Plant Physiol. 132, 262–265.Google Scholar
  17. Bonner D.M. & Haagen-Smit A.J. 1939 Leaf growth factors II. The activity of pure substances in leaf growth. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 25, 184–188.Google Scholar
  18. Bonner D.M., Haagen-Smit A.J. & Went F.W. 1939 Leaf growth hormones. 1. A bio-assay and source for leaf growth factors. Bot. Gaz. 101, 128–144.Google Scholar
  19. BOXUS PH. & Terzi J.M. 1988 Control of accidental contaminations during mass propagation. Acta Hortic. 225, 189–190.Google Scholar
  20. Briggs B.A., McCulloch S.M. & Edick L.A. 1988 Micro-propagation of azaleas using thiadiazuron. Acta Hortic. 226, 205–208.Google Scholar
  21. Bruce M.I. & Zwar J.A. 1966 Cytokinin activity of some ureas and thioureas. Proc. Roy. Soc. (Lond.) Ser. B 165, 245–265.Google Scholar
  22. Bruce M.I., Zwar J.A. & Kefford N.P. 1965 Chemical structure and plant kinin activity; the activity of urea and thiourea derivatives. Life Sci. 4, 461–466.Google Scholar
  23. Burrows W.J., Skoog F. & Leonard N.J. 1971 Isolation and identification of cytokinins located in the transfer ribonucleic acid of tobacco callus grown in the presence of 6-benzylaminopurine. Biochemistry 10, 2189–2194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Butenko R.G., Atanassov A. & Urmantseva W. 1972 Some features of the sugar beet tissue culture. Phytomorph. 22, 140–143.Google Scholar
  25. Cailloux M. 1978 Simultaneous use of 3 cytokinins gives better yields with Gynura sarmentosa. p. 248 in Hughes et al. (eds.) 1978 (q.v.).Google Scholar
  26. Carman J.G. & Campbell W.A. 1988 Factors affecting somatic embryogenesis in wheat. In Bajaj Y.P.S. (ed.) 1988.Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry. Crops II. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.Google Scholar
  27. Carr D.J. (ed.) 1972 Plant Growth Substances 7th Int. Conf. on Plant Growth Subs. 1970 Springer- Verlag, Berlin. Heidelberg, New York.Google Scholar
  28. Chatfield J.M. & Armstrong D.J. 1988 Cytokinin oxidase from Phaseolus vulgaris callus cultures. Affinity for concanav-alin A. Plant Physiol. 88, 245–247.Google Scholar
  29. Chen C.-M., Ertl J.R., Leisner S.M. & Chang C.-C. 1985 Localization of cytokinin biosynthetic sites in pea plant and carrot roots. Plant Physiol. 78, 510–513.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Chiariotti A. & Antonelli M. 1988 The effect of 6-BAP and adenine sulphate on peach shoot proliferation. Acta Hortic. 227, 418–420.Google Scholar
  31. Christou P. & Barton K.A. 1989 Cytokinin antagonist activity of substituted phenethylamines in plant cell culture. Plant Physiol. 89, 564–568.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Crozier A. & Hillman J.R. (eds.) 1984 The Biosynthesis and Metabolism of Plant Hormones.Soc. for Exp. Biology, Seminar Series 23, Cambridge Univ. Press ISBN 0-521-26424-3.Google Scholar
  33. Danilina A.N. 1972 Morphogenesis of embryoids from carrot tissue cultures. Phytomorph. 22, 160–164.Google Scholar
  34. Davis M.J., Baker R. & Hanan J.J. 1977 Clonal multi-plication of carnation by micropropagation. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 102, 48–53.Google Scholar
  35. De Azevedo W.F., Leclerc S., Meijer L., Havlicek L., Strnad M. & Kim S.-H. 1997 Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases by purine analogues. Crystal structure of human cdk2 complexed with roscovitine. Eur. J. Biochem. 243, 518–526.Google Scholar
  36. Den Boer B.G.W. & Murray J.A.H. 2000 Triggering the cell cycle in plants. Trends Cell Biol. 10, 245–250.Google Scholar
  37. Deruere J & Kieber J.J. 2002 Molecular mechanisms of cytokinin signalling. J. Plant Growth Regul. 21, 32–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Dickinson J.R., Forsyth C. & Van Staden J. 1986 The role of adenine in the synthesis of cytokinins in tomato plants and in cell-free root extracts. Plant Growth Regul. 4, 325–334.Google Scholar
  39. Doerschug M.R. & Miller C.O. 1967 Chemical control of adventitious organ formation in Lactuca sativa explants. Am. J. Bot. 54, 410–413.Google Scholar
  40. Dominov J.A., Stenzler L., Lee S., Schwarz J.J., Leisner S. & Howell S.H. 1992 Cytokinins and auxins control the expression of a gene in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia cells by feedback regulation. Plant Cell 4, 451–461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Dyson W.H. & Hall R.H. 1972 N6-(D2-isopentenyl) adenosine: its occurrence as a free nucleoside in an autonomous strain of tobacco tissue. Plant Physiol. 50, 616–621.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Earle E.D. & Torrey J.G. 1965 Morphogenesis in cell colonies grown from Convolvulus cell suspensions plated on synthetic media. Am. J. Bot. 52, 891–899.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Eccher T. & No N. 1989 Comparison between 2iP and zeatin in the micropropagation of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum). Acta Hortic. 241, 185–190.Google Scholar
  44. Einset J.W. & Alexander J.H. (III) 1985 Multiplication of Syringa species and cultivars in tissue culture. Comb. Proc. Int. Plant Prop. Soc. 1984 34, 628–636.Google Scholar
  45. Einset J.W. & Skoog F. 1973 Biosynthesis of cytokinins in cytokinin-autotrophic tobacco callus. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 70, 658–660.Google Scholar
  46. Einset J.W. 1986a Zeatin biosynthesis from N6-(D2-iso-pentenyl)adinine in Actinidia and other woody plants. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83, 972–975.Google Scholar
  47. Einset J.W. 1986b Role of cytokinin in shoot cultures of woody species. p. 298 in Somers et al. (eds.) 1986 (q.v.).Google Scholar
  48. Elliott R.F. 1970 Axenic culture of meristem tips of Rosa multiflora. Planta 95, 183–186.Google Scholar
  49. Elobeidy A. & Korban S.S. 1988 The effect of thidiazuron on shoot regeneration from apple leaf discs. HortScience 23, 755.Google Scholar
  50. Elstner E.F., Keller G. & Paradies I. 1983 Contrasting effects of the cotton defoliant thidiazuron and aminoethoxy-vinylglycine, an inhibitor of ethylene formation, on stomatal aperture and on ethylene formation in bean (Phaseolous vulgaris) leaves. Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 96,459-467.Google Scholar
  51. Emery R.J.N., Leport L., Barton J.E., Turner N.C. & Atkins C.A. 1998 cis-Isomers of cytokinins predominate Cicer arietinum throughout their development. Plant Physiol. 117, 1515–1523.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Entsch B., Letham D.S., Parker C.W., Summons R.E. & Gollnow B.I. 1980 Metabolites of cytokinins. pp. 109-118 in Skoog (ed.) 1980 (q.v.).Google Scholar
  53. Ernst D. & Oesterhelt D. 1985 Changes of cytokinin nucleotides in an anise cell culture (Pimpinella anisum L.) during growth and embryogenesis. Plant Cell Rep. 4, 140–143.Google Scholar
  54. Ernst D., SchäFer W. & Oesterholt D. 1983 Isolation and identification of a new, naturally occurring cytokinin (6-benzyl-aminopurine riboside) from an anise cell culture (Pimpinella anisum L.). Planta 159, 222–225.Google Scholar
  55. Estévez J.M., Reindl A., Reichler S. & LeóN P. 2001 1-Deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate, a limiting enzyme for plastidic isoprenoid biosynthesis in plants. J. Biol. Chem. 276, 22901–22909.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Fasolo F., Zimmerman R. H., Fordham I. & Falbo L. 1988a Adventitious shoot formation on excised leaves of in vitro cultured apples: effects of cytokinin, auxin, and leaf age. HortScience 23, 755.Google Scholar
  57. Fasolo F., Zimmerman R.H. & Fordham I. 1988b Adventitious shoot formation on excised leaves in vitro cultured apple cultivars. HortScience 23, 676.Google Scholar
  58. Fellman C.D., Read P.E. & Hosier M.A. 1987 Effects of thidiazuron and CPPU on meristem formation and shoot proliferation. HortScience 22, 1197–1200.Google Scholar
  59. Fonnesbech A., Fonnesbech M. & Bredmose N. 1977 Growth and development of Asparagus plumosus shoot tips in vitro. Acta Hortic. 78, 287.Google Scholar
  60. Fonnesbech A., Fonnesbech M. & Bredmose N. 1979 Influence of cytokinins and temperature on development of Asparagus plumosus shoot tips in vitro. Physiol. Plant. 45, 73–76.Google Scholar
  61. Forsyth C. & Van Staden J. 1987 Cytokinin metabolism in tomato plants. II. Metabolites of kinetin and benzyladenine in decapitated roots. Plant Growth Regul. 6, 277–292.Google Scholar
  62. Fox J.E. 1992 Molecular modeling of cytokinins and the CBF-1 receptor. In: Physiology and Biochemistry of Cytokinins in Plants(Kamínek M., Mok D.W.S., Zazimalová E. (eds.) pp. 127-132. SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  63. Fujiwara A. (ed.) 1982 Plant Tissue Culture 1982. Proc. 5th. Int. Cong. Plant Tiss. Cell Cult., Japan. Assoc. Plant Tissue Culture, Japan.Google Scholar
  64. Frank M. & Schmülling T. 1999 Cytokinin cycles cells. Trends Plant Sci. 4, 243–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Frett J.J. & Smagula J.M. 1983 In vitro shoot production of lowbush blueberry. Can. J. Plant Sci. 63, 467–472.Google Scholar
  66. Fries N. 1960 The effect of adenine and kinetin on growth and differentiation of Lupinus. Physiol. Plant. 13, 468–481.Google Scholar
  67. Fuerst R.A.U.A., Soni R., Murray J.A.H. & Lindsey K. 1996 Modulation of cyclin transcript levels in cultured cells of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Physiol. 112, 1023–1033.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Fujimura T. & Komamine A. 1975 Effects of various growth regulators on the embryogenesis in a carrot cell suspension culture. Plant Sci. Lett. 5, 359–364.Google Scholar
  69. Gamborg O.L., Miller R.A. & Ojima K. 1968 Nutrient requirements of suspension cultures of soybean root cells. Exp. Cell Res. 50, 151–158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Gilby A.C. & Wainwright H. 1989 Use of tissue culture in improvement of watercress (Rorippa nasturtium aquaticum L. Hayek). Acta Hortic. 244, 105–113.Google Scholar
  71. Green C.E, Sommers D.A., Hackett W.P. & Biesboer D.D. (eds.) 1987 Plant Tissue and Cell Culture. Alan R. Liss, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  72. Gregorini G. & Laloue M. 1980 Biological effects of cytokinin antagonists 7-(pentylamino) and 7-(benzylamino)-3-methylpyrazolo (4,3-d) pyrimidines on suspension-cultured tobacco cells. Plant Physiol. 65, 363–367.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Gupta S.D. & Hadley G. 1977 Phytotoxicity of benomyl on orchid seedlings. Am. Orchid Soc. Bull. 46, 905–907.Google Scholar
  74. Haberer G. & Kieber J.J. 2002 Cytokinins. New insights into a classic phytohormone. Plant Physiol. 128, 354–362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Halperin W. & Wetherell D.F. 1964 Adventive embryony in tissue cultures of the wild carrot, Daucus carota. Am. J. Bot. 51, 274–283.Google Scholar
  76. Hammerschlag F.A. 1988 Callus and root formation from leaves of mature peach plants propagated in vitro. HortScience 23, 756.Google Scholar
  77. Hansen C.E., Meins F. Jr. & Aebi R. 1987 Hormonal regulation of zeatin-riboside accumulation by cultured tobacco cells. Planta 172, 520–525.Google Scholar
  78. Hansen C.E., Meins F. Jr. & Milani A. 1985 Clonal and physiological variation in the cytokinin content of tobacco cell lines differing in cytokinin requirement and capacity for neoplastic growth. Differentiation 29, 1–6.Google Scholar
  79. Harris G.P. & Hart E.M.H. 1964 Regeneration from leaf squares of Peperomia sandersii A, DC: a relationship between rooting and budding. Ann. Bot. 28, 509–526.Google Scholar
  80. Harris R.E. & Stevenson J.H. 1979 Virus elimination and rapid propagation of grapes in vitro. Comb. Proc. Int. Plant Prop. Soc. 29, 95–108.Google Scholar
  81. Havlicek L., Hanus J., Vesely J., Leclerc S., Meijer L., Shaw G. & Strnad M. 1997 Cytokinin-derived cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors: Synthesis and cdc2 inhibitory activity of olomoucine and related compounds. J. Med. Chem. 40, 408–412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Hecht S.M. 1980 Probing the cytokinin receptor site(s). pp. 144-160 in Skoog F. (ed.) 1980 (q.v.).Google Scholar
  83. Hecht S.M., Bock R.M., Schmitz R.Y., Skoog F. & Leonard N.J. 1971 Cytokinins: Development of a potent antagonist. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 68, 2608–2610.Google Scholar
  84. Heide O.M. 1965 Interaction of temperature, auxins and kinins in the regeneration ability of Begonia leaf cuttings. Physiol. Plant. 18, 891–920.Google Scholar
  85. Hempel M., Petos-Witkowska B. & Tymoszuk J. 1985 The influence of cytokinins on multiplication and subsequent rooting of Gerbera in vitro. Acta Hortic. 167, 301–305.Google Scholar
  86. Hennen G.R. & Sheehan T.J. 1978 In vitro propagation of Platycerium stemaria. HortScience 13, 245Google Scholar
  87. Horgan R. 1987a Plant growth regulators and the control of growth and differentiation in plant tissue cultures. pp. 135-149 in Green et al.(eds.) 1987 (q.v.).Google Scholar
  88. Horgan R. 1987b Cytokinin genes. pp. 119-130 in Hoad G.V., Lenton J.R., Jackson M.B. and Atkin R.K. (eds.) 1987 Hormone Action in Plant Development – A Critical Appraisal. Butterworths, London, Boston.Google Scholar
  89. Horgan R., Hewett E.W., Purse J. & Wareing P.F. 1973 A new cytokinin from Populus robusta. Tetrah. Lett. 30, 2827–2828.Google Scholar
  90. Huang L.-C. 1984 Alternative media and method for Cattleya propagation by tissue culture. Am. Orchid Soc. Bull. 53, 167–170.Google Scholar
  91. Hughes K.W., Henke R. & Constantin M. (eds.) 1978 Propagation of Higher Plants through Tissue Culture. Technical Inf. Center, U.S. Dept. Energy. Spingfield, Va. CONF-7804111.Google Scholar
  92. Humphries E.C. 1960 Kinetin inhibited root formation on leaf petioles of detached leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris (dwarf bean). Physiol. Plant. 13, 659–663.Google Scholar
  93. Hwang I., Sheen J. 2001 Two-component circuitry in Arabidopsis cytokinin signal transduction. Nature 413, 383-389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Imel M.R. & Preece J.E. 1988 Adventitious shoot forma-tion from recultured leaves of rhododendron. HortScience 23, 760.Google Scholar
  95. Inoue T., Higuchi M., Hashimoto Y., Seki M., Kobayashi M., Kato T., Tabata S., Shinozaki K. & Kakimoto T. 2001 Identification of CRE1 as a cytokinin receptor from Arabidopsis. Nature 409, 1060–1063.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Iwamura H., Masuda N., Koshimizu K. & Matsubara S. 1979 Cytokinin-agonist and antagonist activities of 4-substituted-2-methylpyrrolo 2.3-d pyrimidines, 7-deaza analogs of cytokinin-active adenine derivatives. Phytochemistry 18, 217–222.Google Scholar
  97. Iwamura H., Masuda N., Koshimizu K. & Matsubara S. 1980 Effects of 4-alkylaminopteridines on tobacco callus growth. Plant Sci. Lett. 20, 15–18.Google Scholar
  98. Jackson M.B., Mantell S.H. & Blake J. (eds.) 1987a Advances in the Chemical Manipulation of Plant Tissue Cultures. Monograph 16, British Plant Growth Regulator Group, Bristol.Google Scholar
  99. Jacquiot C. 1951 Action of meso-inositol and of adenine on bud formation in the cambium tissue of Ulmus campestris cultivated in vitro. Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris 233, 815–817.Google Scholar
  100. Jarret R.L., Hasegawa P.M. & Erickson H.T. 1980 Effects of medium components on shoot formation from cultured tuber discs of potato. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 105, 238–242.Google Scholar
  101. John P.C.L., Zhang K., Dong CH., Diederich L. & Wightman F. 1993 p34cdc2 related proteins in control of cell cycle progression, the switch between division and differentiation in tissue development, and stimulation of division by auxin and cytokinin. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 20, 503–526.Google Scholar
  102. Jouanneau J.-P. 1970 Renouvellement des protéines et effet spécifique De la kinétine sur des cultures De cellules De Tabac. Physiol. Plant. 23, 232–244.Google Scholar
  103. Jouanneau J.P. 1971 Côntrole par les cytokinines De la synchronisation des mitoses dans les cellules De tabac. Exp. Cell Res. 67, 329–337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Jouanneau J.P. 1975 Protein synthesis requirement for the cytokinin effect upon tobacco cell division. Exp. Cell Res. 91, 184-190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Kakimoto T. 1996 CKI1, a histidine kinase homolog implicated in cytokinin signal transduction. Science 274, 982–985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Kakimoto T. 2001. Identification of plant cytokinin bio-synthetic enzymes as dimethylallyl diphosphate: ATP/ADP isopentenyl transferase. Plant Cell Physiol. 42, 677-685Google Scholar
  107. Kamada H. & Harada H. 1979 Influence of several growth regulators and amino acids on in vitro organogenesis of Torenia fournieri. J. Exp. Bot. 30, 27–36.Google Scholar
  108. KamíNek M., VanéK T., Kalendova-Kulasova A. & Pilar J. 1987 The effect of two cytokinins on production of stem cuttings by stock plants of Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. and Gerbera jamesonii Hook. Sci. Hortic. 33, 281–289.Google Scholar
  109. Kassanis B. 1957 The use of tissue cultures to produce virus-free clones from infected potato varieties. Ann. Appl. Biol. 45, 422-427Google Scholar
  110. Kathal R. Bhatnagar S.P. & Bhojwani S.S. 1988 Regeneration of plants from leaf explants of Cucumis melocv. Pusa Sharbati. Plant Cell Rep. 7 449-451.Google Scholar
  111. Kefford N.P., Bruce M.I. & Zwar J.A. 1966 Cytokinin activities of phenylurea derivatives - bud growth. Planta 68, 292–296.Google Scholar
  112. Kemp T.R. & Stoltz L.P. 1979 Cytokinins from growth regulator autonomous callus tissue. Plant Sci. Lett. 16, 403–408.Google Scholar
  113. Kerns H.R. & Meyer M.M. Jr. 1986 Tissue culture propagation of Acerxxfreemanii using thidiazuron to stimulate shoot tip proliferation. HortScience, 21, 1209–1210.Google Scholar
  114. Khanna R. & Chopra R.N. 1977 Regulation of shoot-bud and root formation from stem explants of Lobularia maritima. Phytomorph. 27, 267–274.Google Scholar
  115. Kirkham M.B. & Holder P.L. 1981 Water osmotic and turgor potentials of kinetin-treated callus. HortScience 16, 306–307.Google Scholar
  116. Kochba J., Button J., Spiegel-Roy P., Bornman C.H. & Kochba M. 1974 Stimulation of rooting of citrus embryoids by gibberellic acid and adenine sulphate. Ann. Bot. 38, 795–802.Google Scholar
  117. Koda Y. & Okazawa Y. 1980 Cytokinin production by asparagus shoot apex cultured in vitro. Physiol. Plant. 49, 193–197.Google Scholar
  118. Konwar B.K. & Coutts R.H.A. 1990 Rapid regeneration of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) plants from in vitro cultures. pp. 114-118 in Nijkamp et al. (eds.) 1990 (q.v.).Google Scholar
  119. Kulaeva O.N. 1980 Cytokinin action on enzyme activities in plants. pp. 119-128 in Skoog F. (ed.) 1980 (q.v.).Google Scholar
  120. Kurosaki F., Takahashi S., Shudo K., Okamoto T. & Isogai Y. 1981 Structure and biological links between urea and purine cytokinins. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 29, 3751–3753.Google Scholar
  121. Laureys F., Dewitte W., Witters E., Van Montagu M., Inzé D. & Van Onckelen H. 1998 Zeatin is indispensable for the G2-M transition in tobacco BY-2 cells. FEBS Lett. 426, 29–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Laureys F., Smets R., Lenjou M., Van Bockstaele D., Inzé D. & Van Onckelen H. 1999 A low content of zeatin type cytokinins is not restrictive for the occurrence of G1/S transition in tobacco BY-2 cells. FEBS Lett. 460, 123–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Lee M. & Phillips R.L. 1988 The chromosomal basis of somaclonal variation. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 39, 413–417.Google Scholar
  124. Lee T.T. 1974 Cytokinin control in subcellular localization of indoleacetic acid oxidase and peroxidase. Phytochemistry 13, 2445–2453.Google Scholar
  125. Letham D.S. 1967 Chemistry and physiology of kinetin-like compounds. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 18, 349–364.Google Scholar
  126. Linsmaier E.M. & Skoog F. 1965 Organic growth factor requirements of tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol. Plant. 18, 100–127.Google Scholar
  127. MähöNen A.P., Bonke M., Kaupinnen L., Riikonen M., Benfey P.N. & Helariutta Y. 2000 A novel two-component hybrid molecule regulates vascular morphogenesis of the Arabidopsis root. Genes Dev. 14, 2938–2943.Google Scholar
  128. Mariano G. 1988 In vitro 14C-labelled 6-benzyladenine uptake and CO2 evolution in two Japanese plum cultivars. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 13, 49–59.Google Scholar
  129. Marino G. 1986 In vitro 6-benzylaminopurine purine uptake in two Japanese plums. Acta Hortic. 179, 871–872.Google Scholar
  130. Martinelli A. 1985 Factors affecting in vitro propagation of the peach almond hybrids ‘Hansen 536’. Acta Hortic. 173, 237–244.Google Scholar
  131. McGaw B.A., Scott I.M. & Horgan R. 1984 Cytokinin bio-synthesis and metabolism. pp. 105-133 in Crozier and Hillman (eds.) 1984 (q.v.).Google Scholar
  132. Messeguer J. & Mel E. 1987 In vitro propagation of adult material and seedlings of Corylus avellana. Acta Hortic. 212, 499–503.Google Scholar
  133. Miller C. & Skoog F. 1953 Chemical control of bud formation in tobacco stem segments. Am. J. Bot. 40, 768–773.Google Scholar
  134. Miller C.O. 1961a A kinetin-like compound in maize. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 47, 170–174.Google Scholar
  135. Miller C.O. 1961b Kinetin related compounds in plant growth. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 12, 395–408.Google Scholar
  136. Miller C.O. 1963 Kinetin and kinetin-like compounds. pp. 194-202 in Linskens & Tracey (eds.). Modern Methods of Plant Analysis. Vol. 6. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  137. Miller C.O. 1979 Cytokinin inhibition of respiration by cells and mitochondria of soybean. Planta 146, 503–511.Google Scholar
  138. Miller C.O. 1980 Cytokinin inhibition of respiration in mitochondria from six plant species. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77, 4731–4735.Google Scholar
  139. Miller C.O. 1982 Cytokinin modification of mitochondrial function. Plant Physiol. 69, 1274–1277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Miller C.O., Skoog F., Okumura F.S., Von Saltza M.H. & Strong F.M. 1955b Structure and synthesis of kinetin. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 77, 2662–2663.Google Scholar
  141. Miller C.O., Skoog F., Von Saltza M. & Strong F.M. 1955a Kinetin, a cell division factor from deoxyribonucleic acid. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 77, 1392.Google Scholar
  142. Miller M.W. & Kuenert C.C. The Dynamics of Meristem Cell Populations. Plenum Press, New York, London.Google Scholar
  143. Mok M.C., Mok D.W.S., Armstrong D.J., Shudo K., Isogai Y. & Okamoto T. 1982 Cytokinin activity of N-phenyl-N-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-ylurea (thiadiazuron). Phytochemis-try 21, 1509–1511.Google Scholar
  144. Mok, M.C., Martin, R.C., Mok, D.W.S. & Shaw, G. 1992 Cytokinin activity, metabolism and function in Phaseolus.pp. 41-46 in Kamínek M., Mok D.W.S., Zazímalová E. (eds.) 1992 Physiology and Bio-chemistry of Cytokinins in Plants. SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, The Netherlands..Google Scholar
  145. Motyka V. & Kaminek M. 1990 Regulation of cytokinin catabolism in tobacco callus cultures. pp. 492-497 in Nijkamp newline et al. (eds.) 1990 (q.v.).Google Scholar
  146. Motyka V., Faiss M., Strnad M., KamíNek M. & Schmülling T. 1996 Changes in cytokinin content and cytokinin oxidase activity in response to derepression of ipt gene transcription in transgenic tobacco calli and plants. Plant Physiol. 112, 1035–1043.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Musgrave M.E. & Siedow J.N. 1985 A relationship between plant responses to cytokinins and cyanide resistant respiration. Physiol. Plant. 64, 161–166.Google Scholar
  148. Nag K.K. & Johri B.M. 1969 Organogenesis and chromosomal constitution in embryo callus of Nuytsia floribunda. Phytomorph. 19, 405–408.Google Scholar
  149. Negrutiu I., Jacobs M. & Cachita D. 1978 Some factors controlling in vitro morphogenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana. Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 86, 113–124.Google Scholar
  150. Nemeth G. 1979 Benzyladenine-stimulated rooting in fruit-tree rootstocks cultured in vitro. Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 95, 389–396.Google Scholar
  151. Neumann K.H. 1968 Untersuchungen uber Beziehungen zwischen Zellteilung und Morphogenese bei Gewebekulturen Von Daucus carota. II. Respiration Von Gewebekulturen in Abhangigkeit Von der Zellteilungsintensitat. Physiol. Plant. 21, 519–524.Google Scholar
  152. Nickerson N.L. 1978 In vitro shoot formation in lowbush Blueberry seedling explants. HortScience 13, 698.Google Scholar
  153. Nijkamp H.J.J., Van Der Plas I.H.W. & Van Aartrijk (eds.) 1990 Progress in Plant Cellular and Molecular Biology. Proc. VIIth Int. Cong. on Plant Tissue and Cell Culture. Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 24-29 June 1990. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dortrecht, Netherlands.Google Scholar
  154. Nitsch C. 1968 Induction in vitro De la floraison chez une plante De jours courts: Plumbago indica L. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. Paris, 12th Series 9, 1–91.Google Scholar
  155. Nitsch J.P. & Bui Dang Ha D. 1967 Effet De l’ordre d’application De l’acide indolyl-3-acetique et De la kinetine sur la division cellulaire. Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris 264D, 288-291.Google Scholar
  156. Nitsch J.P., Nitsch C., Rossini L.M.E. & Bui Dang Ha D. 1967 The role of adenine in bud differentiation. Phytomorph. 17, 446–453.Google Scholar
  157. Nwankwo B.A. & Krikorian A.D. 1983 Morpho-genetic potential of embryo- and seedling-derived callus of Elaeis guineensis Jacq. var. pisifera Becc. Ann. Bot. 51, 65–76.Google Scholar
  158. Ochatt S.J. & Power J.B. 1988 An alternative approach to plant regeneration from protoplasts of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.). Plant Sci. 56, 75–79.Google Scholar
  159. Ohyama K. & Oka S. 1982 Multiple shoot formation from Mulberry (Morus alba L.) hypocotyls by N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N-phenylurea. pp. 149-150 in Fujiwara A. (ed.) 1982 (q.v.).Google Scholar
  160. Okamoto T., Shudo K., Takahashi S., Yatsunami T., Isogai Y. & Yamada K. 1978 Shoot formation of tobacco callus by varous cytokinin-active ureas and pyrimidines. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 26, 3250–3252.Google Scholar
  161. Paek K.Y., Chandler S.F. & Thorpe T.A. 1987 In vitro propagation of Chinese cabbage from seedling shoot tips. J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 112, 841–845.Google Scholar
  162. Palmer M.V. & Palni L.M.S. 1987 Substrate effects on cytokinin metabolism in soybean callus tissue. J. Plant Physiol. 126, 365–371.Google Scholar
  163. Pareek L.K. & Chandra N. 1978b Differentiation of shoot buds in vitro in tissue cultures of Sisymbrium irio. J. Exp. Bot. 29, 239–244.Google Scholar
  164. Pasternak T., Miskolczi P., Ayaydin F., MéSZáRos T., Dudits D. & FehéR A. 2000 Exogenous auxin and cytokinin dependent activation of CDKs and cell division in leaf protoplast-derived cells of alfalfa. Plant Growth Regul. 32, 129–141.Google Scholar
  165. Paterson K.E. & Rost T.L. 1981 Callus formation and organogenesis from cultured leaf segments of Crassula argentea: cytokinin-induced developmental pattern changes. Am. J. Bot. 68, 965–972.Google Scholar
  166. Peaud-Lenoel C. & Jouanneau J.-P. 1980 Presence and possible functions of cytokinins in RNA. pp. 129-143 in Skoog F. (ed.) 1980 (q.v.).Google Scholar
  167. Phillips G.C. & Collins G.B. 1980 Somatic embryogenesis from cell suspension cultures of red clover. Crop Sci. 20, 323-326.Google Scholar
  168. Pierik R.L.M., Steegmans H.H.M., Verhaegh J.A.M. & Wouters A.N. 1982 Effect of cytokinin and cultivar on shoot formation of Gerbera jamesonii in vitro. Neth. J. Agric. Sci. 30, 341–346.Google Scholar
  169. Planchais S., Glab N., Inzé D. & Bergounioux C. 2000 Chemical Inhibitors: a tool for plant cell cycle studies. FEBS Lett. 476, 78–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Plummer T.H. & Leopold A.C. 1957 Chemical treatment for bud formation in Saintpaulia. Proc. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 70, 442–444.Google Scholar
  171. Pyott J.L. & Converse R.H. 1981 In vitro propagation of heat-treated red raspberry clones. HortScience 16, 308–309.Google Scholar
  172. Rao P.S. & Bapat V.A. 1978 Vegetative propagation of sandalwood plants through tissue culture. Can. J. Bot. 56, 1153–1156.Google Scholar
  173. Read P.E., Fellman C.D. & Zimmerman E. 1986 New plant growth regulators for cuttings and for tissue culture. Comb. Proc. Int. Plant Prop. Soc. 1985 35, 78–84.Google Scholar
  174. Redig P., Shaul O., Inzé D., Van Montagu M. & Van Onckelen H. 1996 Levels of endogenous cytokinins, Indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid during the cell cycle of synchronized tobacco BY-2 cells. FEBS Lett. 391, 175–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Reisch B.I. & Martens M.-H.R. 1988 Shoot regeneration from grape leaf, petiole and tendril tissues. HortScience 23, 807.Google Scholar
  176. Reynolds B.D., Blackmon W.J. & Postek C.E. 1980 Production of somatic embryos from Roselle callus. HortScience 15, 432 (Abst.447).Google Scholar
  177. Rodaway S. & Lutz A.W. 1985 Nitroguanidines: a new class of synthetic cytokinins. Plant Physiol. 77, Suppl. 21 (Abst. 109).Google Scholar
  178. Rogozinska J.H., Kroon C. & Salemink C.A. 1973 Influence of alterations in the purine ring on biological activity of cytokinins. Phytochemistry 12, 2087–2092.Google Scholar
  179. Rothwell K. & Wright S.T.C. 1967 Phytokinin activity in some new 6-substituted purines. Proc. Roy. Soc. 167B, 202-223.Google Scholar
  180. Saunders J.W. & Bingham E.T. 1975 Growth regulator effects on bud initiation in callus cultures of Medicago sativa. Am. J. Bot. 62, 850–855.Google Scholar
  181. Schmülling T. 2002 New insights into the functions of cytokinins in plant development. J. Plant Growth Regul. 21, 32–39.Google Scholar
  182. Schraudolf H. & Reinert J. 1959 Interaction of plant growth regulators in regeneration processes. Nature 184, 465-466.Google Scholar
  183. Scott K.J., Daly J. & Smith H.H. 1964 Effects of indoleacetic acid and kinetin on activities of enzymes of the hexose monophosphate shunt in tissue cultures of Nicotiana. Plant Physiol. 39, 709–712.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Seabrook J.E.A., Cumming B.G. & Dionne L.A. 1976 The in vitro induction of adventitious shoot and root apices on Narcissus (daffodil and narcissus) cultivar tissue. Can. J. Bot. 54, 814–819.Google Scholar
  185. Shantz E.M. & Steward F.C. 1955 The identification of compound A from coconut milk as 1,3-diphenylurea. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 77, 6351–6353.Google Scholar
  186. Short K.C. & Torrey J.G. 1972a Cytokinins in seedling roots of pea. Plant Physiol. 49, 155–160.Google Scholar
  187. Singha S. & Bhatia S.K. 1988 Shoot proliferation of pear cultures on medium containing thidiazuron and benzylamino purine. HortScience 23, 803.Google Scholar
  188. Skene K.G.M. 1972a Cytokinin like properties of the systemic fungicide benomyl. J. Hortic. Sci. 47, 179–182.Google Scholar
  189. Skene K.G.M. 1972b Cytokinins in the bleeding sap of the grape vine. pp. 476-483 in Carr D.J. (ed.) 1972 (q.v.).Google Scholar
  190. Skoog F. (ed.) 1980 Plant Growth Substances. Proc. 10th Int. Conf. Plant Growth Substances. Madison, Wisconsin, 1979. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  191. Skoog F. & Miller C.O. 1957 Chemical regulation of growth and organ formation in plant tissues cultured in vitro. Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol. 11, 118–131.Google Scholar
  192. Skoog F. & Tsui C. 1948 Chemical control of growth and bud formation in tobacco stem segments and callus cultured in vitro. Am. J. Bot. 35, 782–787.Google Scholar
  193. Skoog F., Schmitz R.Y., Bock R.M. & Hecht S.M. 1973 Cytokinin antagonists: synthesis and physiological effects of 7-substituted 3-methyepyrazolo (4;3-d) pyrimidines. Phytochem-istry 12, 25–37.Google Scholar
  194. Skoog F., Schmitz R.Y., Hecht S.M. & Frye R.B. 1975 Anticytokinin activity of substituted pyrrolo 2,3-d pyrimidines. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72, 3508–3512.Google Scholar
  195. Skoog F., Strong F.M. & Miller C.O. 1965 Cytokinins. Science 148, 532–533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Somers D.A., Gegenbach B.G., Biesboer D.D., Hackett W.P. & Green C.E. (ed.) 1986 Abstracts VI Int. Cong. Plant Tissue and Cell Culture. Internat. Assoc. Plant Tiss. Cult. Minneapolis, Minn.Google Scholar
  197. Start N.G. & Cumming B.G. 1976 In vitro propagation of Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. HortScience 11, 204–206.Google Scholar
  198. Stirk W.A., Strnad M., Novak O. & Van Staden J. 2003 Cytokinins in macroalgae. Plant Growth Regul. 41, 13–24.Google Scholar
  199. Sun J., Niu Q-W., Tarkowski P., Zheng B., Tarkowska D., Sandberg G., Chua N-H. & Zuo J. 2003 The Arabidopsis AtlPT8/PGA22 gene encodes an isopent-enyl transferase that is involved in de novo cytokinin biosynthesis. Plant Physiol. 131, 167-176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Sunderland N. & Wells B. 1968 Plastid structure and development in green callus tissues of Oxalis dispar. Ann. Bot. 32, 327–346.Google Scholar
  201. Suttle J.C. 1984 Effect of the defoliant thidiazuron on ethylene evolution from mung bean hypocotyl segments. Plant Physiol. 75, 902–907.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Suttle J.C. 1985 Involvement of ethylene in the action of the defoliant thidiazuron. Plant Physiol. 78, 272–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Suzuki T., Miwa K., Ishikawa K., Yamada H., Aiba H., Mizuno T. 2001 The Arabidopsis sensor kinase, AHK4, can respond to cytokinin. Plant Cell Physiol. 42, 107-113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Syono K. & Furuya T. 1972 Effects of cytokinins on the auxin content of tobacco calluses. Plant Cell Physiol. 13, 843–856.Google Scholar
  205. Takahashi S., Shudo K., Okamoto T., Yamada K. & Isogai Y. 1978 Cytokinin activity of N-phenyl-N-(4-pyridyl) urea derivatives. Phytochemistry 17, 1201–1207.Google Scholar
  206. Tanimoto S. & Harada H. 1982 Effects of cytokinin and anticytokinin on the initial stage of adventitious bud differen-tiation in the epidermis of Torenia stem segments. Plant Cell Physiol. 23, 1371–1376.Google Scholar
  207. Taylor N.J., Stirk W.A. & Van Staden J. 2003 The elusive cytokinin biosynthetic pathway. S. Afr. J. Bot. 69, 269–281.Google Scholar
  208. Tepfer D.A & Fosket D.E. 1978 Hormone mediated translational control of protein synthesis in cultured cells of Glycine max. Dev. Biol. 62, 486–497.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Terrine C., Doree M., Guern J. & Hall R.H. 1972 Uptake of cytokinins by Acer pseudoplatanus cells: enzymes of the adenosine deamininase type as possible regulators of the cytokinin level inside the cell. pp. 467-475 in Carr D.J. (ed.) 1972 (q.v.)Google Scholar
  210. Thomas J.C. & Katterman F.R. 1986 Cytokinin activity induced by thidiazuron. Plant Physiol. 81, 681–683.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Thorpe T.A. & Meier D.D. 1972 Starch metabolism, repiration and shoot formation in tobacco callus cultures. Physiol. Plant. 27, 365–369.Google Scholar
  212. Thorpe T.A. & Meier D.D. 1974 Starch metabolism in shoot-forming tobacco callus. J. Exp. Bot. 25, 288–294.Google Scholar
  213. Thorpe T.A. & Murashige T. 1968 Starch accumulation in shoot-forming tobacco callus cultures. Science 160, 421–422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. Torrey J.G. 1972 On the initiation of organisation in the root apex. pp. 1-13 in Miller and Kuehnert (eds.) 1972 (q.v.).Google Scholar
  215. Van Der Krieken W.M., Croes A.F., Barendse G.W.M. & Wullems G.J. 1988 Uptake and metabolism of benzyladenine in the early stage of flower bud development in vitro in tobacco. Physiol. Plant. 74, 113–118.Google Scholar
  216. Van Staden J. & Crouch N.R. 1996 Benzyladenine and derivatives - their significance and interconversion in plants. Plant Growth Regul. 19, 153-175Google Scholar
  217. Van Staden J. & Davey J.E. 1979 The synthesis, transport and metabolism of endogenous cytokinins. Plant Cell Environ. 2, 93–106.Google Scholar
  218. Van Staden J. & Drewes F.E. 1991 The biological activity of cytokinin derivatives in the soybean callus bioassay. Plant Growth Regul. 10, 109–115.Google Scholar
  219. Van Staden J. & Drewes F.E. 1992 The stability and metabolism of benzyladenine glucosides in soybean callus. J. Plant Physiol. 140, 92–95.Google Scholar
  220. Van Staden J. & Mooney P.A. 1988 The effect of cytokinin preconditioning on the metabolism of adenine derivatives in soybean callus. J. Plant Physiol. 133, 466–469.Google Scholar
  221. Vanková R., Gaudinová A., KamíNek M. & Eder J. 1992 The effect of interaction of synthetic cytokinin and auxin on production of natural cytokinins by immobilized tobacco cells. pp. 47-51 in Kamínek M., Mok D.W.S., Zazímalová E., (eds). Physiology and Biochemistry of Cytokinins in Plants. SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, The Netherlands,.Google Scholar
  222. Vesely J., Havlicek L., Strnad M., Blow J.J., Donella-Deana A., Pinna L., Letham D.S., Kato J., Detivaud L. Leclerc S. & Meijer L. 1994 Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases by purine analogues. Eur. J. Biochem. 224, 771–786.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Vieitez A.M. & Vieitez M.L. 1980b Culture of chestnut shoots from buds in vitro. Plant Physiol. 55, 83–84.Google Scholar
  224. Welsh J. & Sink K.C. 1981 Morphogenic responses of Browallialeaf sections and callus. Ann. Bot. 48 583-590.Google Scholar
  225. Wenck A.R., Conger B.V., Trigiano R.N. & Sams C.E. 1988 Inhibition of somatic embryogenesis in Orchardgrass by endogenous cytokinins. Plant Physiol. 88, 990–992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Wilcox E.J., Selby C. & Wain R.L. 1978 Studies on plant growth-regulating substances. L. The cytokinin activity of some substituted benzyloxypurines. Ann. Appl. Biol. 88, 439–444.Google Scholar
  227. Wilcox E.J., Selby C. & Wain R.L. 1981 The cytokinin activities of 6-α -alkylbenzyloxy-purines. Ann. Appl. Biol. 97, 221–226.Google Scholar
  228. Wood H.N., Sterner R., Alves L.M. & Basile D.V. 1990 Auxin-phorbol ester: an example of a two-stage initiation-promotion system mediating cell proliferation in plants. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol.-Plant 26, 1125–1127.Google Scholar
  229. Xiang-Can Z., Jones D.A. & Kerr A. 1989 Regeneration of shoots on root explants of flax. Ann. Bot. 63, 297–299.Google Scholar
  230. Zazímalová E., Brezinová A., Holik, J. & Opatrny, Z. 1996 Partial auxin deprivation affects endogenous cytokinins in an auxin-dependent, cytokinin-independent tobacco cell strain. Plant Cell Rep. 16, 76-79Google Scholar
  231. Zazímalová E., Brezinová, A., Motyka, V. & Kamínek, M. 1999 Control of cytokinin biosynthesis and metabolism pp. 141-160 in Hooykaas P, Hall M.A., Libbenga K.R., (eds) 1999. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plant Hormones, Ser. New comprehensive biochemistry, Elsevier.Google Scholar
  232. Zimmer K. & Pieper W. 1975 Weitere untersuchungen zur kultur in vitro Von Aechmea. Gartenbauwiss. 40, 129–132.Google Scholar
  233. Zimmer K. & Pieper W. 1976 Methods and problems of clonal propagation of bromeliads in vitro. Acta Hortic. 64, 25–29.Google Scholar
  234. Ziv M., Halevy H. & Shilo R. 1970 Organs and plantlets regeneration of gladiolus through tissue culture. Ann. Bot. 34, 671–676.Google Scholar
  235. Zubko E., Adams C.J., Macháéková I., Malbeck J., Scollen C. & Meyer, P. 2002 Activation tagging identifies a gene from Petunia hybrida responsble for the production of active cytokinins in plants. Plant J. 29, 797–808.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© springer 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edwin F. George
    • 1
  • Michael A. Hall
    • 2
  • Geert-Jan De Klerk
    • 3
  1. 1.Merriott, SomersetUnited Kingdom
  2. 2.Institute of Biological SciencesUniversity of Wales, AberystwythUnited Kingdom
  3. 3.Plant Research InternationalWageningenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations