Biological Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments

  • Saïd el Fantroussi
  • Spiros N. Agathos
  • Dietmar H. Pieper
  • Robert Witzig
  • Beatriz Cámara
  • Lotte Gabriel-Jürgens
  • Howard Junca
  • Giulio Zanaroli
  • Fabio Fava
  • José R. Pérez-Jiménez
  • Lily Y. Young
  • Kelly Hamonts
  • Richard Lookman
  • Miranda Maesen
  • Ludo Diels
  • Winnie Dejonghe
  • John Dijk
  • Dirk Springael
Part of the Nato Science Series: IV: Earth and Environmental Sciences book series (NAIV, volume 73)

Abstract

Various approaches to clean contaminated aquatic environments have been proposed. In recent years, natural attenuation has received increasing attention and it is generally accepted that microorganisms are the principal mediators of the natural attenuation of many pollutants. However, the complexity of environmental systems such as sediments requires a multifaceted approach to understand microbial processes and their potential. This is even more so under in situ conditions, where the activity of pollutant degrading microorganisms is generally slow, partial and constrained spatially and/or temporally. Recent developments in molecular biology and genomics are offering tools to explore microbial processes at a level that encompasses the genetic characteristics of the local microbial players, culturable or not, as well as their organization into complex communities and their interactions both with each other and with the target chemicals. It is now possible to study microbes directly in their environments at the population level as well as at the single cell level and to link biology to geochemistry. Integrative knowledge from culture independent studies based on functional characters and assessment of the diversity and quantity of catabolic genes in response to pollution, will allow a deeper understanding of and a rational intervention in environmental processes. Moreover, the use of genomic libraries to retrieve genes from natural bacterial communities without cultivation will allow a breakthrough in accessing new microbial capabilities. In this chapter, the main features, advantages and limitations of these innovative approaches to the biomonitoring and analysis of intrinsic bioremediation potential of polluted environments and sediments are critically reviewed. Then, the potential of the same strategies in the integrated chemical, physical and biological monitoring and characterization of polluted sediments subjected to natural decontamination is shown through the description of the main results of case studies performed on a) polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated marine sediments of the Porto Marghera area of Venice Lagoon (Italy) in which the occurrence of PCB-reductive dechlorination processes has been demonstrated for the first time in the literature, b) sediments contaminated by chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) collected from different positions of the eutrophic river Zenne (Vilvoorde, Belgium), where they have been found to act as a natural biobarrier for the CAHs occurring in the groundwater that is passing through the sediment zone, hereby reducing the risk of surface water contamination, and c) other environmental contaminated systems subjected to ex-situ and in situ active bioremediation, where these processes are described on the basis of the experience accumulated in pilot and real-life systems.

Keywords

polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons bioaugmentation biostimulation reductive dechlorination biosensors PCR DGGE T-RFLP metagenomics sulfate-reducing bacteria fingerprinting methods exsitu treatment in situ treatment engineered bioremediation systems 

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Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Saïd el Fantroussi
    • 1
  • Spiros N. Agathos
    • 1
  • Dietmar H. Pieper
    • 2
  • Robert Witzig
    • 2
  • Beatriz Cámara
    • 2
  • Lotte Gabriel-Jürgens
    • 2
  • Howard Junca
    • 2
  • Giulio Zanaroli
    • 3
  • Fabio Fava
    • 3
  • José R. Pérez-Jiménez
    • 4
  • Lily Y. Young
    • 4
  • Kelly Hamonts
    • 5
  • Richard Lookman
    • 5
  • Miranda Maesen
    • 5
  • Ludo Diels
    • 5
  • Winnie Dejonghe
    • 5
  • John Dijk
    • 6
  • Dirk Springael
    • 6
  1. 1.Unit of Bioengineering, Faculty of Bioengineering, Agronomy & EnvironmentCatholic University of LouvainLouvain-la-NeuveBelgium
  2. 2.GBF German Research Centre for BiotechnologyBraunschweigGermany
  3. 3.DICASM, Faculty of EngineeringAlma Mater Studiorum-University of BolognaBolognaItaly
  4. 4.Department of Environmental Sciences and Biotechnology Center for Agriculture and the Environment, Cook College, RutgersThe State University of New JerseyNew BrunswickUSA
  5. 5.Flemish Institute for Technological ResearchGeelBelgium
  6. 6.Catholic University of LeuvenHeverleeBelgium

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