From Fragmentation to Reaggregation of Rangelands in the Northern Great Plains, USA
The Northern Great Plains region has been experiencing a trend towards reaggregation of fragmented land parcels into larger operations since the 1930s. Grasslands were initially fragmented during the settlement of the region in the 1860s, due to settlement policies and the introduction of cropping, and fragmentation continued as roads and fences were built. Today, however, farmers and ranchers find that expansion of operations is one way to stay in business in the face of the challenging environmental and economic conditions of Great Plains agriculture. The control and use of small tracts of land for agriculture and ranching in the Northern Great Plains did not adequately support homesteader families in the region in the 1860s, and judging from the increase in operation size in the region, smaller tracts are often not adequate today.
KeywordsGreat Plain Land Tenure Land Parcel Northern Great Plain World Wildlife Fund
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Anderson, T. L. and P. J. Leal. 1998. From free grass to fences: Transforming the commons of the American West. Pages 119-134. In: Baden, J.A. and D.S. Noonan, editors. Managing the commons. 2nd ed. Indiana University Press, Bloomington.Google Scholar
- Bamforth, D. B. 1988. Ecology and human organization on the Great Plains. Plenum Press, New York. Google Scholar
- Bennett, J. W. 1990. Human adaptations to the North American Great Plains and similar environments. Pages 41-80. In: P. A. Olson, editor. The struggle for the land: Indigenous insight and industrial empire in the semiarid world. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE.Google Scholar
- Beutler, M. K. 2003. Impact of South Dakota agriculture 2002. South Dakota State University, Brookings.Google Scholar
- Boone, R. B. and N. T. Hobbs. 2004. Lines around fragments: effects of fencing on large herbivores. African Journal of Range and Forage Science 21:79-90.Google Scholar
- Coon, R. C., F. L. Leistritz, and T. A. Majchrowicz. 1992. The role of agriculture in the North Dakota economy. Agricultural Economics Statistical Series Report 50, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND.Google Scholar
- Ellis, J. E. and M. Peel. 1995. Economies of Spatial Scale in Dryland Ecosystems. In: Arid Zone Ecology Forum, Kimberly, South Africa.Google Scholar
- Hawkes, N. 1992. Myth of the noble savage. World 57:36-38.Google Scholar
- Jennings, T. L. 2000. Living with uncertainty: adaptive strategies for sustainable livelihoods in the Northern Great Plains. M.A. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO.Google Scholar
- Klement, K. D., R. K. Heitschmidt, and C. E. Kay. 2001. Eighty years of vegetation and landscape changes in the Northern Great Plains. Conservation Research Report 45, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service.Google Scholar
- Martin, C. 1978. Keepers of the game: Indian-animal relationships and the fur trade. University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
- Ojima, D. S., J. M. Lackett, and the Central Great Plains Steering Committee and Assessment Team. 2002. Preparing for a changing climate: The potential consequences of climate variability and change - Central Great Plains. Report for the US Global Change Research Program, Colorado State University.Google Scholar
- Popper, F. J. and D. E. Popper. 1994. Great Plains: Checkered past, hopeful future. Forum for Applied Research 9:89-100.Google Scholar
- Powell, J. W. 1962. Report on the lands of the arid region of the United States. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
- Reher, C. A. 1977. Adaptive process on the shortgrass plains. Pages 13-40. In: L. R. Binford, editor. For theory building in archaeology: Essays on faunal remains, aquatic resources, spatial analysis, and systematic modeling. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
- Robinson, E. B. 1966. History of North Dakota. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln.Google Scholar
- Starrs, P. F. 1998. Let the cowboy ride. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
- Stegner, W. 1962. Editor’s Introduction. In: Powell, J.W. Report on the lands of the arid region of the United States. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
- Stucky, H. R. 1961. Characteristics and trends in the Great Plains. Pages 1-21. In: Land tenure in the Great Plains. North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND.Google Scholar
- The Planning Support Group, Bureau of Indian Affairs. 1974. Indians in the Northern Great Plains: Anticipated socio-economic impacts of coal development. U.S. Department of Interior, Billings, MT.Google Scholar
- University of Texas Population Research Center Great Plains Population and Environment Database: Version 1.0 1998. Austin: Texas Population Research Center, University of Texas at Austin.Google Scholar
- U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts. Data derived from Population Estimates, 2000 Census of Population and Housing, 1990 Census of Population and Housing, Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates, County Business Patterns, 1997 Economic Census, Minority- and Women-Owned Business, Building Permits, Consolidated Federal Funds Report, 1997 Census of Governments.Google Scholar
- U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2002 Census of Agriculture. National Agricultural Statistics Service.Google Scholar
- White, R. P., S. Murray, and M. Rohweder. 2000. Pilot analysis of global ecosystems: grassland ecosystems. World Resources Institute, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
- World Resources Institute. 2004. Grassland Fragmentation by Roads in the Great Plains. http://www.earthtrends.wri.org/maps_spatial/maps_detail_static.cfm?map_select=253&th eme=9.
- World Wildlife Fund. 2004. Northern Great Plains: Threats to Biodiversity. http://www. worldwildlife.org/wildplaces/negp/threats.cfm.