THE SOIL AS A RESERVOIR FOR NATURAL ENEMIES OF PEST INSECTS AND MITES WITH EMPHASIS ON FUNGI AND NEMATODES

  • Ingeborg Klingen
  • Solveig Haukeland
Part of the Progress in Biological Control book series (PIBC, volume 2)

Abstract

The soil is the home of innumerable forms of plants, animals and microbes, and life in the soil is highly diverse, ranging from microscopic single-celled organisms to large burrowing animals. As in above ground environments, there are well-defined food chains and competition for survival in the soil environment (Foth & Turk, 1990). Biotic and abiotic interactions in soil ecosystems may enhance or reduce populations of pest arthropods (defined here as insects and mites). Ninety percent of arthropod pest species spend at least part of their life cycle in soil (Gaugler, 1988; Villani & Wright, 1990; Kaya & Gaugler, 1993). Soil dwelling pest arthropods have natural enemies among soil organisms, but also pests that occasionally come into contact with soil might be consumed by predators or become infected with pathogenic propagules (Sunderland 1975; Purvis & Curry, 1984, Tanada & Kaya 1993; Hajek, 1997; Eilenberg & Meadow, 2002).

Keywords

Chlorpyrifos Diazinon Cypermethrin Carbendazim Maneb 

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  • Ingeborg Klingen
  • Solveig Haukeland

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