• Hermann Strasser
  • Martin Kirchmair
Part of the Progress in Biological Control book series (PIBC, volume 2)


Reviewing the European field of biocontrol, a wide range of biological control agents (BCAs) have been or are developed as commercial biopesticides, but little has been invested into the research and development of the products compared to the amount spent on the discovery of chemical pesticides (Butt et al., 1999). This is in contradiction to the necessities for a successful registration because “green” Europe wants to meet high safety standards for BCAs. More than 270 active ingredients are listed in the second edition of The BioPesticide Manual (Copping 2001). The author reports that the number of products which are placed in different orders such as micro-organisms, macro-organisms, natural products, semiochemicals and genes increased to over 1000. Most of the commercialised BCAs in Europe are produced and distributed by small sized enterprises (SEs) which are companies which employ fewer than 50 employees and which have an annual turnover not exceeding € 10 million. These facts are important to point out because these enterprises must calculate with small profits, if any, and very often cannot afford the high costs for a successful registration of their BCAs, which are in most cases niche products.


Biological Control Agent Plant Protection Product Airborne Fungus Fungal Keratitis Sick Building Syndrome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abendstein, D. & Strasser, H. (2000). Considerations on toxic metabolites produced by Beauveria brongniartii. IOBC wprs Bulletin, 23: 99–105.Google Scholar
  2. Amaya, R.A. & Edwards, M.S. (2003). Agrobacterium radiobacter bacteremia in pediatric patients: case report and review. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, 22: 183–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, K.L., Mitra, S.M., Salouti, R., Pham, T.-A. & Taylor, H.R. (2004). Fungal keratitis caused by Paecilomyces lilacinus associated with a retained intracorneal hair. Cornea, 23: 516–521.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anonymous (2005). OECD–Biological pesticide registration.,2340, en_2649_34383_31962760_1_1_1_1,00.html. January, 7th, 2005, 2.05 pm.Google Scholar
  5. Bernstein, I.L., Bernstein, J.A., Miller, M., Tierzieva, S., Bernstein, D.I., Lummus, Z., Selgrade, M.J.K., Doerfler, D.L. & Seligy, V.L. (1999). Immune responses in farm workers after exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis pesticides. Environmental Health Perspectives, 107: 575–582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Blum, B., Ehlers, R.U., Haukeland-Salinas, S., Hokkanen, H., Jung, K., Kuhlmann, U., Menzler-Hokkanen, I., Ravensberg, W., Strasser, H., Warrior, P. & Wilson, M. (2003). Letter to the editors - Biological control agents: Safety and regulatory policy. BioControl, 48: 474–487.Google Scholar
  7. Butt, T.M., Harris, J.G. & Powell, K.A. (1999). Microbial Biopesticides, In F.R. Hall & J.J. Menn (eds.). Methods in Biotechnology. Humana Press Inc., 23–44.Google Scholar
  8. Castagnola, E., Fioredda, F., Barretta, M.A., Pescetto, L., Garaventa, A., Lanino, E., Micalizzi, C., Giacchino, R. & Dini, G. (2001). Bacillus spaericus bacteraemia in children with cancer: case reports with literature review. Journal of Hospital Infection, 48: 142–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cepero de García, M.C., Arboleda, M.L., Barraquer, F. & Grose, E. (1997). Fungal keratitis caused by Metarhizium anisopliae var anisopliae. Journal of Medical and Veterinary Mycology, 7: 43–46.Google Scholar
  10. Cook, R.J., Bruckart, W.L., Coulson, J.R., Goettel, M.S., Humber, R.A., Lumsden, R.D., Maddox, J.V., McManus, M.L., Moore, L. Meyer, S., Quimby JR., P.C., Stack, J.P. & Vaughn, J.L. (1996). Commentary - Safety of Microorganisms intended for pest and plant disease Control: A framework for scientific evaluation. Biological Control, 7: 333–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Copping, L.G. (2001). The BioPesticide Manual. In L.G. Copping (ed.). A World Compendium–The BioPesticide Manual. British Crop Protection Council, 1–528.Google Scholar
  12. Commission Directive 2001/36/EC of 16 May 2001 of amending Council Directive 91/414/EEC concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market (OJ L 164, 16.05.2001).Google Scholar
  13. Commission Directive 2000/54/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 September 2000 on the protection of workers from risks related to exposure to biological agents at work (OJL262, 17.10.2000).Google Scholar
  14. Commission Regulation (EC) No 111 2/2002 of 20 June 2002 laying down the detailed rules for the implementation of the fourth stage of the programme of work referred to in Article 8(2) of Council Directive 91/414/EEC (OJ L 168, 27.06.2002).Google Scholar
  15. Council Directive 91/414/EEC concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market (OJ L 230, 19.8.1991).Google Scholar
  16. Council Directive 93/43/EEC of 14 June 1993 on the hygiene of foodstuffs (OJ L 208, 05.09.1995).Google Scholar
  17. Council Directive 98/24/EC of 7 April 1998 on the protection of the health and safety of workers from the risks related to chemical agents at work [(fourteenth individual Directive within the meaning of Article 16 (1) of Directive 89/391/EEC), OJ L 131, 05.05.1998].Google Scholar
  18. Damgaard, P.H., Granum, P.E., Bresciani, J., Torregrossa, M.V., Eilenberg, J. & Valentino, L. (1997). Characterisation of Bacillus thuringiensis isolated from infections in burn wounds. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, 18: 47–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Doekes, G., Larsen, P., Sigsgaard, T. & Baelum, J. (2004). IgE sensitization to bacterial and fungal biopesticides in a cohort of Danish greenhouse workers: The BIOGART study. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 46: 404–407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Feng, M.G., Poprawski, T.J. & Khachatourians, G.G. (1994). Production, formulation and application of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana for insect control: Current status. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 4: 3–34.Google Scholar
  21. Fischer, G. & Dott, W. (2003). Relevance of airborne fungi and their secondary metabolites for environmental, occupational and indoor hygiene. Archives of Microbiology, 179: 75–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Hall, V.C., Goyal, S., Davis, M.D.P. & Walsh, J.S. (2004). Cutaneous hyalohyphomycosis caused by Paecilomyces lilacinus: report of three cases and review of the literature. International Journal of Dermatology, 43: 648–653.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hussey, N.W. & Tinsley, T.W. (1981). Impressions of insect pathology in the People’s Republic of China. In: H.D. Burges (ed.). Microbial Control of Pests and Plant Diseases 1970–1980. Academic Press, 785–795.Google Scholar
  24. Kisla, T.A., Cu-Unjieng, A., Sigler, L. & Sugar, J. (2000). Medical management of Beauveria bassiana keratitis. Cornea, 19: 405–406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kratz, A., Greenberg, D., Barki, Y., Cohen, E. & Lifshitz, M. (2003). Pantoea agglomerans as a cause of septic arthritis after palm tree thorn injury; case report and literature review. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 88: 542–544.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kurata, H. (1994). Mycological monitoring for sanitary evaluation in the Japanese food industry, In: R.A. Samson, B. Flannigan, M.E. Flannigan, A.P. Verhoeff, O.C.G. Adan & E.S. Hoekstra (eds.). Health implications of fungi in indoor environments. Air quality monographs. Elsevier Science B.V. (2), 31–37.Google Scholar
  27. Melnikova, E.A. & Murza, V.I. (1980). Investigations of the safety of industrial strains of microorganisms and microbial insecticides. Journal of Hygiene, Epidemiology, Microbiology and Immunology, 24: 425–431.Google Scholar
  28. OECD Series on pesticides, Number 18, Guidance for Registration Requirements for Microbial Pesticides (ENV/JM/MONO (2003)5, 21.05.2003).Google Scholar
  29. OECD Guidance for Country Data Review Reports on Microbial Pest Control Products and their Microbial Pest Control Agents (Monograph Guidance for Microbials), February 2004, Series on Pesticides No. 22.Google Scholar
  30. Rainer, J., Peintner, U. & Pöder R., (2000). Biodiversity and concentration of airborne fungi in a hospital environment. Mycopathologia, 149: 87–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rainer, J., Kirchmair, M. & Strasser, H. (2003). Evaluation of the exposure to fungal BCA’s. In A.M. Madsen, J. Eilenberg, A. Enkegaard, N.B. Hendriksen, D.F. Jensen, J.B. Jespersen & J. Larsen (eds.). Conference on Occupational Health Risks of Producing and Handling Organisms for Biological Control of Pests in Agriculture at AMI. Danish Centre for Biological Control. Abstract Book, 17.Google Scholar
  32. Ray, J.N. & Pence, H.L. (2004). Ladybug hypersensitivity: Report of a case and review of literature. Allergy and Asthma Proceedings, 25: 133–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Renz, H. & Herz, U. (2002). The bidirectional capacity of bacterial antigens to modulate allergy and asthma. European Respiratory Journal, 19: 158–171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rogers, G.B., Hart, C.A., Mason, J.R., Hughes, M., Walshaw, M.J. & Bruce, K.D. (2003). Bacterial diversity in cases of lung infection in cystic fibrosis patients: 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) length heterogeneity PCR and 16S rDNA terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism profiling. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 41: 3548–3558.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Saik, J.E., Lacey, L.A. & Lacey, C.M. (1990). Safety of microbial insecticides to vertebrates–domestic animal and wildlife. In M. Laird, L.A. Lacey & E.W. Davidson (eds.). Safety of Microbial Insecticides. CRC Press, 115–134.Google Scholar
  36. Samples, J.R. & Buettner, H. (1983). Ocular infection by a biological pesticide. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 148(3): 614.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. SANCO/108/2002. Opinion of the scientific committee on plants on the working document from the Commission establishing Annex VI B to Directive 91/414/EEC (SCP/Annex VI/ B/002-Final, 30.01.2003).Google Scholar
  38. Seger, C., Sturm, S., Längle, T., Wimmer, W., Stuppner, H. & Strasser, H. (2005a). Development of a sensitive High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array for the detection and quantification of the Beauveria metabolite oosporein from submerged culture broth and biocontrol formulations. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53: 1364–1369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Seger, C., Erlebach, D., Stuppner, H., Griesser, U.J. & Strasser, H. (2005b). Physico-chemical properties of oosporein, a major metabolite of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria brongniartii. Helvetica Chimica Acta, 88. 802–810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Shin, J.H., Kim, S.H., Shin, M.G., Suh, S.P., Ryang, D.W. & Jeong, M.H. (1997). Bacteremia due to Burkholderia gladioli: case report. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 25: 1264–1265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Siegel, J.P. (2001). Minireview: The mammalian safety of Bacillus thuringiensis–based insecticides. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 77: 13–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Strasser, H. & Pernfuss, B. (2005a). Neuer biologischer Wirkstoff fur die Kontrolle des Mäikafers: Bericht von aktuellen Demonstrationsstudien aus Tirol. Ernte–Zeitschriftfur Ökologie und Landwirtschaft, 1: 2–3.Google Scholar
  43. Strasser, H. & Pernfuss, B. (2005b). What have BIPESCO and RAFBCA achieved that could help with risk assessment and registration. IOBC wprs Bulletin, 28: 189–192.Google Scholar
  44. Strasser, H., Vey, A. & Butt, T.M. (2000a). Are there any risks in using entomopathogenic fungi for pest control, with particular reference to the bioactive metabolites of Metarhizium, Tolypocladium and Beauveria species? Biocontrol Science and Technolog, 10: 717–735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Strasser, H., Abendstein, D., Stuppner, H. & Butt, T.M. (2000b). Monitoring the distribution of secondary metabolites produced by the entomopathogenous fungus Beauveria brongniartii with particular reference to oosporein. Mycological Research, 10: 1227–1233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Tanser, S.J., Hodson, M.E. & Geddes, D.M. (2000). Case reports of death during pregnancy in patients with cystic fibrosis-three out of four patients were colonized with Burkholderia cepacia. Respiratory Medicine, 94: 1004–1006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Teng, L.J., Hsueh, P.R., Pan, H.J., Ho, S.W., & Luh, K.T. (2001). Persistent bacteraemia caused by a single clone of Burkholderia cepacia with unusual phenotype. Journal of Infection, 42: 202–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Van Lenteren, J.C., Babendreier, D., Bigler, F., Burgio, G., Hokkanen, H.M.T., Kuske, S., Loomans, A.J.M., Menzler-Hokkanen, I., van Rijn, P.C.J., Thomas, M.B., Tommasini, M.G. & Zeng, Q.-Q. (2003). Environmental risk assessment of exotic natural enemies used in inundative biological control. BioControl, 48: 3–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Vey, A., Hoagland, R.E. & Butt, T.M. (2001). Toxic metabolites of fungal biocontrol agents. In T.M. Butt, C. Jackson & N. Magan (eds.). Fungal Biocontrol Agents: Progress, Problems & Potential. CABI, 311–346.Google Scholar
  50. Ward, M.D.W., Sailstad, D.M. & Selgrade, M.K. (1998). Allergic responses to the biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae in Balb/c mice. Toxicological Sciences, 45: 195–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Ward, M.D.W., Madison, S.L., Sailstad, D.M., Gavett, S.H. & Selgrade, M.K. (2000a). Allergen-triggered airway hyperresponsiveness and lung pathology in mice sensitized with the biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae. Toxicology, 143: 141–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ward, M.D.W., Madison, S.L., Andrews, D.L., Sailstad, D.M., Gavett, S.H. & Selgrade, M. J. K. (2000b). Comparison of respiratory responses to Metarhizium anisopliae extract using two different sensitization protocols. Toxicology, 147: 133–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Yamamoto, N., Matsumoto, T. & Ishibashi, Y. (2001). Fungal keratitis caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Cornea, 20: 902–903.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Zimmermann, O. (2004). The use of beneficials for biological control in Germany–Notes on the present status. Gesunde Pflanzen, 56: 151–156.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hermann Strasser
  • Martin Kirchmair

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations