Advertisement

Photosystem I pp 193-204 | Cite as

Mutagenesis of Ligands to the Cofactors in Photosystem I

  • Andrew N. Webber
  • Velupillaimani M. Ramesh
Part of the Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration book series (AIPH, volume 24)

Abstract

The electron transfer chain of Photosystem I (PS I) is made up of six chlorophylls (P700, A, and A0), two quinones (A1), and three iron–sulfur centers (FXX, FA, and FB). The chlorophylls and quinones formtwo potential pathways for electron transfer from P700 to FX. The electron transfer chain chlorophylls are also excitonically coupled as indicated by the spectrally broad transient bleaching observed between 660 and 700 nm upon initial excitation. This article reviews how specific mutagenesis of the ligands of each cofactor is being used to address some of the outstanding questions raised by the structural model of Photosystem I.

Keywords

Electron Transfer Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Axial Ligand Primary Charge Separation Sulfur Center 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Agalarov R and Brettel K (2003) Temperature dependence of biphasic forward electron transfer from the phylloquinone(s) A1 in photosystem I: only the slower phase is activated. Biochim Biophys Acta 1604: 7–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Boudreaux B, MacMillan F, Teutloff C, Agalarov R, Gu F, Grimaldi S, Bittl R, Brettel K and Redding K (2001) Mutations in both sides of the photosystem I reaction center identify the phylloquinone observed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. J Biol Chem 276: 37299–37306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Byrdin M, Jordan P, Krauß N, Fromme P, Stehlik D and Schlodder E (2002) Light harvesting in photosystem I: modeling based on the 2.5-Å structure of photosystem I from Synechococcus elongatus. Biophys J 83: 433–457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Cui L, Bingham SE, Kuhn M, Kass H, Lubitz W and Webber AN (1995) Site-directed mutagenesis of conserved histidines in the helix VIII domain of PsaB impairs assembly of the photosystem I reaction center without altering spectroscopic characteristics of P700. Biochemistry 34: 1549–1558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Fairclough WV, Forsyth A, Evans MC, Rigby SE, Purton S and Heathcote P (2003) Bidirectional electron transfer in photosystem I: electron transfer on the PsaA side is not essential for phototrophic growth in Chlamydomonas. Biochim Biophys Acta 1606: 43–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fischer N, Sétif P and Rochaix JD (1999) Site-directed mutagenesis of the PsaC subunit of photosystem I. FB is the cluster interacting with soluble ferredoxin. J Biol Chem 274: 23333–23340PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fromme P, Jordan P and Krauß N (2001) Structure of photosystem I. Biochim Biophys Acta 1507: 5–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gibasiewicz K, Ramesh VM, Lin S, Woodbury NW and Webber AN (2002) Excitation dynamics in eukaryotic PS I from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii CC 2696 at 10 K. Direct detection of the reaction center exciton states. J Phys Chem B 106: 6322–6330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gibasiewicz K, Ramesh VM, Lin S, Redding K, Woodbury NW and Webber AN (2003) Excitonic interactions in wild-type and mutant PSI reaction centers. Biophys J 85: 2547–2559PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Golbeck JH (2003) The binding of cofactors to photosystem I analyzed by spectroscopic and mutagenic methods. Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct 32: 237–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Guergova-Kuras M, Boudreaux B, Joliot A, Joliot P and Redding K (2001) Evidence for two active branches for electron transfer in photosystem I. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98: 4437–4442PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hastings G, Kleinherenbrink FA, Lin S, McHugh TJ and Blankenship RE (1994) Observation of the reduction and reoxidation of the primary electron acceptor in photosystem I. Biochemistry 33: 3193–3200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hastings G, Hoshina S, Webber AN and Blankenship RE (1995) Universality of energy and electron transfer processes in photosystem I. Biochemistry 34: 15512–15522PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Joliot P and Joliot A (1999) In vivo analysis of the electron transfer within photosystem I: are the two phylloquinones involved? Biochemistry 38: 11130–11136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jordan P, Fromme P, Witt HT, Klukas O, Saenger W and Krauß N (2001) Three-dimensional structure of cyanobacterial photosystem I at 2.5 Å resolution. Nature 411: 909–917PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Krabben L, Schlodder E, Jordan R, Carbonera D, Giacometti G, Lee H, Webber AN and Lubitz W (2000) Influence of the axial ligands on the spectral properties of P700 of photosystem I: a study of site-directed mutants. Biochemistry 39: 13012–13025PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Melkozernov AN, Lin S and Blankenship RE (2000) Femtosecond transient spectroscopy and excitonic interactions in photosystem I. J Phys Chem B 104: 1651–1656PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Muhiuddin IP, Heathcote P, Carter S, Purton S, Rigby SE and Evans MC (2001) Evidence from time resolved studies of the P700+/A1 - radical pair for photosynthetic electron transfer on both the PsaA and PsaB branches of the photosystem I reaction centre. FEBS Lett 503: 56–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Muller MG, Niklas J, Lubitz W and Holzwarth AR (2003) Ultrafast transient absorption studies on photosystem I reaction centers from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. 1. A new interpretation of the energy trapping and early electron transfer steps in photosystem I. Biophys J 85: 3899–3922PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Quinkal I, Davasse V, Gaillard J and Moulis JM (1994) On the role of conserved proline residues in the structure and function of Clostridium pasteurianum 2[4Fe–4S] ferredoxin. Protein Eng 7: 681–687PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ramesh VM, Guergova-Kuras M, Joliot P and Webber AN (2002) Electron transfer from plastocyanin to the photosystem I reaction center in mutants with increased potential of the primary donor in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Biochemistry 41: 14652–14658PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ramesh VM, Gibasiewicz K, Lin S, Bingham SE and Webber AN (2004) Bidirectional electron transfer in photosystem I: accumulation of A0 - in A-side or B-side mutants of the axial ligand to chlorophyll A0. Biochemistry 43: 1369–1375PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Redding K, MacMillan F, Leibl W, Brettel K, Hanley J, Rutherford AW, Breton J and Rochaix JD (1998) A systematic survey of conserved histidines in the core subunits of photosystem I by site-directed mutagenesis reveals the likely axial ligands of P700. EMBO J 17: 50–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rodday SM, Webber AN, Bingham SE and Biggins J (1995) Evidence that the FX domain in photosystem I interacts with the subunit PsaC: site-directed changes in PsaB destabilize the subunit interaction in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Biochemistry 34: 6328–6334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Smart LB, Warren PV, Golbeck JH and McIntosh L (1993) Mutational analysis of the structure and biogenesis of the photosystem I reaction center in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90: 1132–1136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sommer F, Drepper F and Hippler M (2002) The luminal helix l of PsaB is essential for recognition of plastocyanin or cytochrome c6 and fast electron transfer to photosystem I in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. J Biol Chem 277: 6573–6581PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sommer F, Drepper F, Haehnel W and Hippler M (2004) The hydrophobic recognition site formed by residues PsaA-Trp651 and PsaB-Trp627 of photosystem I in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii confers distinct selectivity for binding of plastocyanin and cytochrome c6. J Biol Chem 279: 20009–20017PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Warren PV, Smart LB, McIntosh L and Golbeck JH (1993) Site-directed conversion of cysteine-565 to serine in PsaB of photosystem I results in the assembly of [3Fe–4S] and [4Fe–4S] clusters in FX. A mixed-ligand [4Fe–4S] cluster is capable of electron transfer to FA and FB. Biochemistry 32: 4411–4419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Webber AN, Gibbs PB, Ward JB and Bingham SE (1993) Site-directed mutagenesis of the photosystem I reaction center in chloroplasts. The proline-cysteine motif. J Biol Chem 268: 12990–12995PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Webber AN, Su H, Bingham SE, Kass H, Krabben L, Kuhn M, Jordan R, Schlodder E and Lubitz W (1996) Site-directed mutations affecting the spectroscopic characteristics and midpoint potential of the primary donor in photosystem I. Biochemistry 35: 12857–12863PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Witt H, Schlodder E, Teutloff C, Niklas J, Bordignon E, Carbonera D, Kohler S, Labahn A and Lubitz W (2002) Hydrogen bonding to P700: site-directed mutagenesis of threonine A739 of photosystem I in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Biochemistry 41: 8557–8569PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Xu W, Chitnis P, Valieva A, van der Est A, Pushkar YN, Krzystyniak M, Teutloff C, Zech SG, Bittl R, Stehlik D, Zybailov B, Shen G and Golbeck JH (2003a) Electron transfer in cyanobacterial photosystem I: I. Physiological and spectroscopic characterization of site-directed mutants in a putative electron transfer pathway from A0 through A1 to FX. J Biol Chem 278: 27864–27875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Xu W, Chitnis PR, Valieva A, van der Est A, Brettel K, Guergova-Kuras M, Pushkar YN, Zech SG, Stehlik D, Shen G, Zybailov B and Golbeck JH (2003b) Electron transfer in cyanobacterial photosystem I: II. Determination of forward electron transfer rates of site-directed mutants in a putative electron transfer pathway from A0 through A1 to FX. J Biol Chem 278: 27876–27887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Zhao J, Li N, Warren PV, Golbeck JH and Bryant DA (1992) Site-directed conversion of a cysteine to aspartate leads to the assembly of a [3Fe–4S] cluster in PsaC of photosystem I. The photoreduction of FA is independent of FB. Biochemistry 31: 5093–5099PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew N. Webber
    • 1
  • Velupillaimani M. Ramesh
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Life Sciences and Center for Early Events in PhotosynthesisArizona State UniversityTempeUSA

Personalised recommendations