Covariant Biophysics of Electro–Muscular Stimulation

Part of the Microprocessor-Based and Intelligent Systems Engin book series (ISCA, volume 28)

In this Chapter we develop covariant biophysics of electro-muscular stimulation, as an externally induced generator of our covariant muscular forces, F i = mg ij aj . The so–called functional electrical stimulation (FES) of human skeletal muscles is used in rehabilitation and in medical orthotics to externally stimulate the muscles with damaged neural control (see, e.g., [VHI87]). However, the repetitive use of electro–muscular stimulation, besides functional, causes also structural changes in the stimulated muscles, giving the physiological effect of muscular training.


Entropy Fatigue Manifold Torque Covariance 


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© Springer 2006

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