Covariant Biophysics of Electro–Muscular Stimulation

Part of the Microprocessor-Based and Intelligent Systems Engin book series (ISCA, volume 28)

In this Chapter we develop covariant biophysics of electro-muscular stimulation, as an externally induced generator of our covariant muscular forces, F i = mg ij aj . The so–called functional electrical stimulation (FES) of human skeletal muscles is used in rehabilitation and in medical orthotics to externally stimulate the muscles with damaged neural control (see, e.g., [VHI87]). However, the repetitive use of electro–muscular stimulation, besides functional, causes also structural changes in the stimulated muscles, giving the physiological effect of muscular training.


White Muscle Contractile Element Feynman Path Wiener Measure Cross Bridge 
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© Springer 2006

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