Covariant Biophysics of Electro–Muscular Stimulation
In this Chapter we develop covariant biophysics of electro-muscular stimulation, as an externally induced generator of our covariant muscular forces, F i = mg ij aj . The so–called functional electrical stimulation (FES) of human skeletal muscles is used in rehabilitation and in medical orthotics to externally stimulate the muscles with damaged neural control (see, e.g., [VHI87]). However, the repetitive use of electro–muscular stimulation, besides functional, causes also structural changes in the stimulated muscles, giving the physiological effect of muscular training.
KeywordsWhite Muscle Contractile Element Feynman Path Wiener Measure Cross Bridge
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