Higher education in Poland has a long and rich history and tradition. The first university, Jagiellonian University in Krakow, was founded in 1364. The two other oldest universities, the University of Vilnius and University of Lvov, were founded in 1578 and 1661, respectively.Warsaw University, the first academic institution located in the capital of Poland (Warsaw), was created in 1816, and the first technical university—the Warsaw Polytechnic—was founded 10 years later in 1826. After World War I, when Poland regained its independence after more than a century of being portioned between Russia, Prussia, and the Austrian Empire, higher education played an important role in restoring Polish culture and science. The higher education system expanded to 32 institutions until the start of WorldWar II. There were five state universities in Krakow, Vilnius, Lvov, Warsaw, and Poznán; three Polytechnics in Warsaw, Lvov, and Krakow; one private university, the Catholic University of Lublin, founded in 1918; and several other private and public higher education institutions in larger cities.
KeywordsEconomic Crisis Europe Income Defend Univer
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