ROTATION OF GRANULAR MATERIAL IN LABORATORY TESTS AND ITS NUMERICAL SIMULATION USING TIJ–COSSERAT CONTINUUM THEORY
It is important to take into consideration the particle rotation when discussing the behaviour of deformation in granular material. A Cosserat continuum theory is suitable for the problems that include rotation of particles in granular materials because the deformation of a ground composed of granular materials is described by both displacements and rotations. In this study, laboratory tests were carried out to investigate the rotation behaviour of granular materials. Then, an elasto-plastic model for sand based on tij-sand model  was formulated within Cosserat continuum theory. Furthermore, the model is implemented into a finite element code for the numerical simulation of boundary value problems related to the tests. From a series of laboratory tests and simulations, results are compared and discussed in detail.
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