Diffusion and Configurational Disorder in Multicomponent Solids
Atomic diffusion in solids is a kinetic property that affects the rates of important nonequilibrium phenomena in materials. The kinetics of atomic redistribution in response to concentration gradients determine not only the speed, but often also the mechanism by which phase transformations in multi-component solids occur. In electrode materials for batteries and fuel cells high mobilities of specific ions ranging from lithium or sodium to oxygen or hydrogen are essential. In many instances, diffusion occurs in nondilute regimes in which different migrating atoms interact with each other. For example, lithium intercalation compounds such as LixCoO2 and Li[itxC6 which serve as electrodes in lithium-ion batteries, can undergo large variations in lithium concentrations, ranging from very dilute concentrations to complete filling of all interstitial sites available for Li in the host. In nondilute regimes, diffusing atoms interact with each other, both electronically and elastically. A complete theory of nondilute diffusion in multi-component solids needs to account for the dependence of the energy and migration barriers on the configuration of diffusing ions.
KeywordsActivation Barrier Interstitial Site Lithium Concentration Lithium Atom Cluster Expansion
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