Aqueous Phase Reactions

  • V. K. Ahluwalia
  • M. Kidwai

Abstract

The use of water as a solvent for carrying out organic reactions was nonexistent till about the middle of the 20th century. In view of the environmental concerns caused by pollution of organic solvents, chemists all over the world have been trying to carry out organic reactions in aqueous phase. The advantage of using water as a solvent is its cost, safety (it is non-inflammable, and is devoid of any carcinogenic effects) and simple operation. Water has the highest value for specific heat of all substances. It’s unique enthalpic and entropic properties has led the chemists to use it as a solvent in organic reactions. Water has an abnormally low volatility because its molecules are associated with each other by means of hydrogen bonds. In fact, the H bonding is the main reason why covalent compounds have low solubility in water. Ionic material become hydrated and polar materials take part in the hydrogen bonding, so they are soluble.

Keywords

Carbonylation Piperidine Butadiene Acrylonitrile Cyclohexanone 

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Copyright information

© Anamaya Publishers, New Delhi, India 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. K. Ahluwalia
    • 1
  • M. Kidwai
    • 2
  1. 1.Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Centre for Biomedical ResearchUniversity of DelhiDelhiIndia
  2. 2.International Chapter of Green Chemistry in India, Department of ChemistryUniversity of DelhiDelhiIndia

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