Advertisement

The Color of the Coastal Ocean and Applications in the Solution of Research and Management Problems

  • Frank E. Muller-Karger
  • Chuanmin Hu
  • Serge Andréfouët
  • Ramón Varela
  • Robert Thunell
Chapter
Part of the Remote Sensing and Digital Image Processing book series (RDIP, volume 7)

Keywords

Particulate Organic Carbon Coastal Ocean Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Atmospheric Correction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ackleson, S.G. and P.M. Holligan. 1989: AVHRR observations of a Gulf of Maine coccolithophorid bloom. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 55, 473-474.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, D. M. 1995. ECOHAB: The Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms, a national research agenda. Woods Hole Oceanog. Institute. Woods Hole, MA. 67 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Andréfouët S., P.J. Mumby M. McField, C. Hu, F.E. Muller-Karger. 2002. Revisiting coral reef connectivity. Coral Reefs, 21:43-48.Google Scholar
  4. Amos, C.L. and T.T. Alfoldi. 1979. The determination of suspended sediment concentration in a macrotidal system using Landsat data, Journal Sedimentary Petrology, 49:159-174.Google Scholar
  5. Arnone, R.A., P. Martinolich, R.W. Gould Jr., R. Stumpf, and S. Ladner. 1998. Coastal optical properties using SeaWiFS. Proceedings Ocean Optics XIV, Kailua Kona, Hawaii, USA, November 10-13.Google Scholar
  6. Armstrong R.A., C. Lee, J.I. Hedges, S. Honjo, and S. G. Wakeham. 2002. A new, mechanistic model for organic carbon fluxes in the ocean based on the quantitative association of POC with ballast minerals. Deep-Sea Research II, 49(1-3):219-236.Google Scholar
  7. Behrenfeld, M.J. and P.G. Falkowski. 1997a. Photosynthetic rates derived from satellite-based chlorophyll concentration. Limnology and Oceanography, 42(1):1-20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Behrenfeld, M.J. and P.G. Falkowski. 1997b. A Consumer's Guide to Phytoplankton Primary Productivity Models. Limnology and Oceanography, 42(7):1479-1491.Google Scholar
  9. Behrenfeld, M. J, Randerson, J. T., McClain, C. R., Feldman,G. C., Los, S. O., Tucker, C. J., Falkowski, P. J., Field, C. B., Frouin, R., Esaias, W. E., Kolber, D. D., PollackN., H. 2001. Biospheric Primary Production During an ENSO Transition. Science, 291:2594-2597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bricaud, A., A. Morel, and L. Prieur. 1981. Absorption by dissolved organic matter in the sea (yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains. Limnology and Oceanography, 26:43-53.Google Scholar
  11. Braga, C. Z. F., Setzer, A. W., and Drude de Lacerda, L., 1993. Water Quality Assessment with Simultaneous Landsat-5 TM Data at Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Remote Sensing of Environment, 45:95- 106.Google Scholar
  12. Campbell, J; Antoine, D; Armstrong, R; Arrigo, K; Balch, W; Barber, R; Behrenfeld, M; Bidigare, R; Bishop, J; Carr, ME; Esaias, W; Falkowski, P; Hoepffner, N; Iverson, R; Kiefer, D; Lohrenz, S; Marra, J; Morel, A; Ryan, J; Vedernikov, V; Waters, K; Yentsch, C; Yoder, J. 2002. Comparison of algorithms for estimating ocean primary production from surface chlorophyll, temperature, and irradiance. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 16 (3):1035-1035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cannizzaro, J.P., K.L. Carder, F.R. Chen, C.A. Heil, and G.A. Vargo. 2004. Bio-optical signatures of red tides on the west Florida shelf. Continental Shelf Research, In Press.Google Scholar
  14. Carder, K. L., Chen, F. R., Lee, Z. P., Hawes, S., and Kamykowski, D. 1999. Semi-analytic MODIS algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures. Journal of Geophysical Research, 104(C3), 5403-5421.Google Scholar
  15. Chen, C.-T. A., K. K. Liu, and R. MacDonald. 2001. Continental margins and seas as carbon sink. Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment - SCOPE. XI General Assembly & Scientific Symposia. September 24-28, 2001. Germany.Google Scholar
  16. Chomko, R. M., and H. R. Gordon. 2001. Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery: Test of the spectral optimization algorithm with the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor. Applied Optics, 40:2973-2984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chomko, R. M., H. R. Gordon, S. Maritorena, and D. A. Siegel. 2003. Simultaneous retrieval of oceanic and atmospheric parameters for ocean color imagery by spectral optimization: a validation. Remote Sensing Environment, 84:208-220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Coble, P. G., Del Castillo, C. E., and Avril, B., 1998. Distribution and optical properties of CDOM in the Arabian Sea during the 1995 Southwest Monsoon. Deep-Sea Research Part II, 45:2195-2223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Del Castillo, C., F. Gilbes, P. Coble, and F. E. Muller-Karger. 2000. On the dispersal of riverine colored dissolved organic matter over the West Florida Shelf. Limnology and Oceanography, 45(6):1425-1432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ding, K., and Gordon, H. R., 1995. Analysis of the influence of O2 A-band absorption on atmospheric correction of ocean-color imagery. Applied Optics, 34:2068-2080.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dwivedi, R. M., and Narain, A., 1987. Remote sensing of phytoplankton: An attempt from the Landsat Thematic Mapper, International Journal Remote Sensing, 8(10):1563-1569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Esaias, W. E., M. R. Abbott, I. Barton, O. B. Brown, J. W. Campbell, K. L. Carder, D. K. Clark, R. H. Evans, F. E. Hoge, H. R. Gordon, W. M. Balch, R. Letelier, and P. J. Minnett. 1998 An overview of MODIS capabilities for ocean science observations, IEEE Transactions Geoscience Remote Sensing, 36:1250- 1265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Falkowski, P.G., R.T. Barber, V. Smetacek. 1998. Biogeochemical controls and feedbaks on ocean primary production. Science, 281:200-206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fingas, M., and C. Brown. 1997. Remote sensing of oil spills. Sea Technology, 38:37-46.Google Scholar
  25. Fingas, M., and C. Brown. 2000. Oil-spill remote sensing – An update. Sea Technology, 41:21-26.Google Scholar
  26. Froidefond, J. M., Castaing, P., Jouanneau, J. M., Prud'Homme, R., and Dinet, A., 1993. Method for the quantification of suspended sediments from AVHRR NOAA-11 satellite data, International Journal Remote Sensing, 14(5):885-894.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gagliardini, D.A., H. Karszenbaum, H., R. Legeckis, and V. Klemas, 1984: Application of LANDSAT MSS, NOAA/TIROS AVHRR, and Nimbus CZCS to study the La Plata River and its interaction with the ocean. Remote Sensing Environment, 15, 21-36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gallegos, S.C., T.I. Gray, and M.M. Crawford, 1989: A study into the responses of the NOAA-n AVHRR reflective channels over water targets. Quantitative remote sensing: An economic tool for the Nineties; Proc. IGARSS '89 and 12th Canadian Symp. on Remote Sens., Vol. 2, IEEE Inc., New York, New York, 712-715.Google Scholar
  29. Gordon, H. R., D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, and R. H. Evans. 1982. Satellite measurement of the phytoplankton pigment concentration in the surface waters of a warm core Gulf Stream ring. Journal Marine Research, (40):491-502.Google Scholar
  30. Gordon, H. R., D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans and W. W. Broenkow. 1983a. Phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: Comparison of ship determinations and CZCS estimates. Applied Optics, 22:20-35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gordon, H. R., J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans and D. K. Clark. 1983b. Nimbus 7 CZCS: Reduction of its radiometric sensitivity with time. Applied Optics. (22:24):3929 3931.Google Scholar
  32. Gordon, H. R., and Wang, M. 1994. Retrieval of water-leaving radiance and aerosol optical thickness over the oceans with SeaWiFS: a preliminary algorithm. Applied Optics, 33:443-452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gregg, W.W., M. E. Conkright, P. Ginoux, J. E. O'Reilly, and N. W. Casey. 2003. Ocean Primary Production and Climate: Global Decadal Changes. Geophysical Research Letters, 30(15):1809, doi:10.1029/ 2003GL016889.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hellin, J., M. Haigh, and F. Marks. 1999. Rainfall characteristics of Hurricane Mitch. Nature, 399:316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hochman, H.T., F.E. Muller-Karger, and J.J. Walsh. 1993. Interpretation of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) signature of the Orinoco River. Journal Geophysical Research, (99:C4):7,443-7,455.Google Scholar
  36. Hochman, H. T., John J. Walsh, Kendall L. Carder, A. Sournia, Frank E. Muller-Karger. 1995. Analysis of ocean color components within stratified and well-mixed water of the western English Channel. Journal of Geophysical Research, 100(C6):10,777-10,787.Google Scholar
  37. Hojerslev, N. K., N. Holt, and T. Aarup. 1996. Continental Shelf Research, 16:1329-1342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hovis, W.A., D. K. Clark, F. Anderson, R. W. Austin, W. H. Wilson, E. T. Baker, D. Ball, H. R. Gordon, J. L. Mueller, S. El-Sayed, B. Sturm, R. C. Wrigley, and C. S. Yentsch. 1980. Nimbus-7 coastal zone color scanner: System description and initial imagery. Science, 210:60-63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hu, C., Carder, K. L., and Muller-Karger, F. E. 2000. Atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS imagery over turbid coastal waters: a practical method. Remote Sensing Environment, 74:195-206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hu, C., Carder, K. L., and Muller-Karger, F. E., 2001. How precise are SeaWiFS ocean color estimates? Implications of digitization-noise errors. Remote Sensing of Environment, 76(2):239-249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hu, C., Z.P. Lee, F. E. Muller-Karger, and K. L. Carder. 2002. Application of an optimization algorithm to satellite ocean color imagery: A case study in Southwest Florida coastal waters. SPIE proceedings 4892.Google Scholar
  42. (Ocean Remote Sensing and Applications, edited by R. J. Frouin, Y. Yuan, and H. Kawamura), p 70-79.Google Scholar
  43. Hu, C., Muller-Karger, F. E., Biggs, D. C., Carder, K. L., Nababan, B., Nadeau, D., and Vanderbloemen, J. 2003a. Comparison of ship and satellite bio-optical measurements on the continental margin of the NE Gulf of Mexico. International Journal Remote Sensing, 24:2597-2612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hu, C., Hackett, K. E., Callahan, M. K., Andréfouët, S., Wheaton, J. L., Porter, J. W., and Muller-Karger, F. E. 2003b. The 2002 ocean color anomaly in the Florida Bight: A cause of local coral reef decline? Geophys. Res. Lett. 30(3), 1151, doi:10.1029/2002GL016479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hu, C., F. E. Muller-Karger, C. Taylor, D. Myhre, B. Murch., A. L. Odriozola, and G. Godoy. 2003c. MODIS detects oil spills in Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. Eos. Transactions, American Geophysical Union. 84(33), pg. 313 and 319.Google Scholar
  46. Hu, C., E.T. Montgomery, R.W. Schmitt, and F.E. Muller-Karger. 2004. The Amazon and Orinoco River plumes in the tropical Atlantic and Caribbean Sea: Observation from space and S-PALACE floats. Deep- Sea Research Part II, In Press.Google Scholar
  47. Hu, C., and F. E. Muller-Karger. 2003. MODIS monitors the Florida's ocean dispersal of the Piney Point Phosphate treated wastewater. The Earth Observer. Vol. 15. No. 6. p.21-23.Google Scholar
  48. Hu, C., Z. Chen, T. Clayton, P. Swarzenski, and F. E. Muller-Karger. 2004. On the operational monitoring of estuary water quality with MODIS medium-resolution bands: Initial results from Tampa Bay, Florida. Remote Sensing Environment, Accepted. Huang, W. G., and X. L. Lou, 2003. AVHRR detection of red tides with neural networks. International Journal Remote Sensing, 24: 1991-1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. IGOS. An Ocean Theme for the IGOS Partnership. Final Report from the Ocean Theme Team. Integrated Global Observing Strategy Partnership. January 2001. 37 pp.Google Scholar
  50. IOCCG. 2000. Remote Sensing of Ocean Colour in Coastal,and Other Optically-Complex Waters. International Ocean-Colour Coordinating Group,No.3: General Introduction. (S. Sathyendranath, Ed.). International Ocean-Colour Coordinating Group (IOCCG) Report. pg. 5-22.Google Scholar
  51. Jahnke, R. A. 1996. The global ocean flux of particulate organic carbon: Areal distribution and magnitude. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, (10:1):71-88.Google Scholar
  52. Jerlov, N.G., 1971. Optical Studies of Ocean Waters. Reports of the Swedish Deep-Sea Expedition, Vol. III. Physics and Chemistry, No. 1.Google Scholar
  53. Khorram, S., 1981. Water quality mapping from Landsat digital data, International Journal Remote Sensing, 2(2):145-153 Kirk, J. T. O. 1983. Light and Photosynthesis in Aquatic Environments. Cambridge University Press. 401 pp.Google Scholar
  54. Koblenz-Mishke, O. J., V. V. Volkovinsky, and J. G. Kabanova. 1970. Plankton primary production of the world ocean. In: W. S. Wooster (ed.). Scientific Exploration of the Southern Pacific. National Academy of Science, Washington, DC. 183-193.Google Scholar
  55. Lampitt R. S., and A. N. Antia. 1997. Particle flux in deep seas: regional characteristics and temporal variability. Deep-Sea Research I, 44(8):1377-1403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lee, Z., Carder, K. L., Mobley, C. D., Steward, R. G., and Patch, J. S.. 1999. Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters: 2. Deriving bottom depths and water properties by optimization. Applied Optics, 38:3831-3843.Google Scholar
  57. Lee, Z., K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone. 2002. Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters. Applied Optics, 41:5755-5772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Letelier, R. M., and M. R. Abbott. 1996. An analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence algorithms for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Remote Sensing of Environment, 58:215-223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Liu, K. -K., K. Iseki, and S.-Y. Chao. Continental margin carbon fluxes. 2000. In: The Changing Ocean Carbon Cycle. International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Book Series. R. B. Hanson, H. Ducklow, and J. G. Field (Eds.), University Press, Cambridge. Vol. 5. Ch. 7. 187-239.Google Scholar
  60. Lohrenz, S. E., Dagg, M. J., and Whiteledge, T. E., 1990. Enhanced primary production at the plume/oceanic interface of the Mississippi River. Continental Shelf Research, 10:639-664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lutz, M., R.L. Dunbar, and K. Caldeira. 2002. Regional variability in the vertical flux of particulate organic carbon in the ocean interior. Global Biogeogeochemical Cycles, 16:91-110.Google Scholar
  62. Lyzenga, D. R., 1981. Remote sensing of bottom reflectance and water attenuation parameters in shallow water using aircraft and Landsat data, International Journal Remote Sensing,, 2(1):71-82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Maritorena, S., D. A. Siegel, and A. R. Peterson. 2002. Optimization of a semianalytical ocean color model for global-scale applications. Applied Optics, 41:2705-2714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Maul, G. A., and H.R. Gordon. 1975. On the use of the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (LANDSAT-1) in optical oceanography, Remote Sensing of Environment, 4:95-128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. McClain, C. R., Cleave, M. L., Feldman, G. C., Gregg, W. W., Hooker, S. B., and Kuring, N., 1998. Science quality SeaWiFS data for global biosphere research. Sea Technology, 39:10-16.Google Scholar
  66. McCulloch M., S. Fallon, T. Wyndham, E. Hendy, J. Lough, and D. Barnes. 2003. Coral record of increased sediment flux to the inner Great Barrier Reef since European settlement. Nature, 421:727-730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Morel, A. 1980. In water and remote measurements of ocean color. Boundary Layer Meteorology, (18):177 201.Google Scholar
  68. Morel, A., and D. Antoine. 2002. Small Critters-Big Effects. Science, 296:1980-1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Morel A., and L. Prieur. 1977. Analysis of variations in ocean color. Limnology and Oceanography, 22:709- 722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Morton, R.A. and M.A. Burklew, 1969: Florida shellfish toxicity following blooms of dinoflagellate Gymnodium breve. Florida Department of Natural Resources Marine Laboratory, Techical Series No. 60, 26 pp.Google Scholar
  71. Muller-Karger, F. E., R. Varela, R. Thunell, Y. Astor, H. Zhang, and C. Hu. 2004. Processes of Coastal Upwelling and Carbon Flux in the Cariaco Basin. Deep-Sea Research II, In Press.Google Scholar
  72. Muller-Karger, F. E., R. Varela, R. Thunell, M. Scranton, R. Bohrer, G. Taylor, J. Capelo, Y. Astor, E. Tappa, T. Y. Ho, and J. J. Walsh. 2001. Annual Cycle of Primary Production in the Cariaco Basin: Response to upwelling and implications for vertical export. Journal of Geophysical Research, 106(C3):4527-4542.Google Scholar
  73. Muller-Karger, F. E., P. L. Richardson, and D. McGillicuddy. 1995. On the offshore dispersal of the Amazon's Plume in the North Atlantic. Deep-Sea Research I, 42(11/12):2127-2137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Muller-Karger, F. E., and R. Varela. 1990. Influjo del Rio Orinoco en el Mar Caribe: observaciones con el CZCS desde el espacio. Memoria. Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle. Caracas, Venezuela. Tomo IL, numero 131-132; Tomo L, numero 133-134. 361-390.Google Scholar
  75. Muller-Karger, F.E., J.J. Walsh, R.H. Evans, and M.B. Meyers. 1991. On the Seasonal Phytoplankton Concentration and Sea Surface Temperature Cycles of the Gulf of Mexico as Determined by Satellites. Journal of Geophysical Research, 96(C7):12645-12665.Google Scholar
  76. Muller-Karger, F. E., C. R. McClain, T. R. Fisher, W. E. Esaias, and R. Varela. 1989. Pigment distribution in the Caribbean Sea: observations from space. Progress in Oceanography, 23:23-69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ogden, J. C. 1997. Marine managers look upstream for connections. Science, 278:1414 –1415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. O'Reilly, J.E., S. Maritorena, D.A. Siegel, M.C. O'Brien, D.Toole, F.P. Chavez, P. Strutton, G.F. Cota, S.B. Hooker, C.R. McClain, K.L. Carder, F. Muller-Karger, L. Harding, A. Magnuson, D. Phinney, G.F. Moore, J. Aiken, K.R. Arrigo, R.Letelier, and M. Culver. 2000. Ocean Chlorophyll-a Algorithms for SeaWiFS, OC2 and OC4: version 4. SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 3.Google Scholar
  79. NASA Tech. Memo. 2000-206892, Vol. 11, S.B. Hooker and E.R. Firestone, Eds., NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, 9-23.Google Scholar
  80. Ouillon, S., P. Douillet, and S. Andréfouët. 2004. Coupling satellite data with in situ measurements and numerical modeling to study fine suspended-sediment transport: A study for the lagoon of New Caledonia. Coral Reefs, DOI: 10.1007/s00338-003-0352-z. Pace, M., G. Knauer, D. Karl and J. Martin. 1987. Primary production, new production and vertical flux in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Nature, 325:803-804.Google Scholar
  81. Platt, T., and A. W. Herman. 1983. Remote sensing of phytoplankton in the sea: surface-layer chlorophyll as an estimate of water-column chlorophyll and primary production. International Journal Remote Sensing, 4(2):343-351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Roberts, C. M. 1997. Connectivity and management of Caribbean coral reefs.Science, 278:1454-1457.Google Scholar
  83. Ruddick, K.G., F. Ovidio, and M. Rijkeboer. 2000. Atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS imagery for turbid coastal and inland waters. Applied Optics, 39:897-912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Siegel, D.A., S. Maritorena, N.B. Nelson, D.A. Hansell, and M. Lorenzi-Kayser, 2002. Global distribution and dynamics of colored dissolved and detrital organic materials. Journal of Geophysical Research, 107(C12):3228-3242.Google Scholar
  85. Siegel, D.A., M. Wang, S. Maritorena, and W. Robinson. 2000. Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean color imagery: The black pixel assumption. Applied Optics, 39:3582-3591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Small, C., and R. Nicholls. 2003. Global analysis of human settlements on coastal zones. Journal of Coastal Research., 19(3):584-599.Google Scholar
  87. Smith, R. C., and K. S. Baker. 1978. The bio-optical state of ocean waters and remote sensing. Limnology and Oceanography, 23(2):247-259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Smith, R. C., and K. S. Baker. 1982. Oceanic chlorophyll concentrations as determined by satellite (Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner). Marine Biology, 66:269-279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Smith, R. C., R. W. Eppley, and K. S. Baker. 1982. Correlation of primary production as measured aboard ship in southern California coastal waters and as estimated from satellite chlorophyll images. Marine Biology, 66:281-288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Steidinger, K.A. and K. Haddad. 1981: Biologic and hydrographic aspects of red tides. Bioscience, 31(11):814-819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Steidinger, K.A. and E.A. Joyce. 1973: Florida red tide. Florida Department of Natural Rescources Report No. 17, Marine Research Department, St. Petersburg, Florida, 26 pp.Google Scholar
  92. Steidinger, K.A. and R.M. Ingle, 1972: Observations on the 1971 summer red tide in Tampa Bay. Florida Environmental Letters, 3(4) :271-277.Google Scholar
  93. Stumpf, R. P. and M. A. Tyler. 1988. Satellite detection of bloom and pigment distributions in estuaries, Remote Sensing of Environment, 24:385-404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Stumpf, R.P. and J.R. Pennock. 1991. Remote estimation of the diffuse attenuation coefficient in a moderately turbid estuary, Remote Sensing of Environment, 38:183-191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Stumpf, R. P. 2001. Applications of satellite ocean color sensors for monitoring and predicting Harmful Algal Blooms, Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 7:1363-1368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Stumpf, R. P., R. A. Arnone, R. W. Gould, Jr., P. M. Martinolich, and V. Ransibrahmanakul. 2003. A partially coupled ocean-atmosphere model for retrieval of water-leaving radiance from SeaWiFS in coastal waters. SeaWiFS postlaunch technical report series. Vol. 22: Algorithm updates for the fourth SeaWiFS data processing. (S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone Eds). pg. 51-59.Google Scholar
  97. SWFDOG. 2002. Satellite images track ‘black water’ event off Florida coast. EOS Trans. AGU 83:281-285.Google Scholar
  98. Takahashi, et al., 1997. Global air-sea flux of CO2: An estimate based on measurements of sea-air pCO2 difference. Volume 94, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, pg. 8929-8299, August 1997.Google Scholar
  99. Tassan, S. 1987. Evaluation of the potential of the Thematic Mapper for marine application, International Journal Remote Sensing, 8(10):1455-1478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Tassan, S. 1993. An improved in-water algorithm for the determination of chlorophyll and suspended sediment concentration from Thematic Mapper data in coastal waters, International Journal Remote Sensing, 14(6):1221-1229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Tassan, S. and B. Sturm. 1986. An algorithm for the retrieval of sediment content in turbid coastal waters from CZCS data, International Journal Remote Sensing, 7(5):643-655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Walsh, J. J. 1991. Importance of continental margins in the marine biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nitrogen. Nature, 350:53-55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Walsh, J.J., K.L. Carder, and F.M. Muller-Karger. 1992. Meridional fluxes of dissolved organic matter in the North Atlantic Ocean. Journal Geophysical Research, 97:15625-15637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Walsh, J. J., and K. A. Steidinger, 2001, Saharan dust and Florida red tides: The cyanophyte connection, Journal Geophysical. Research, 106:11,597-11,612.Google Scholar
  105. Wang, M., and S.W. Bailey. 2001. Correction of sun glint contamination on SeaWiFS ocean and atmosphere products. Applied Optics, 40:4790-4798.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Williams, J., and R.M. Ingle. 1972: Ecological note on Gonyaulax monilata (Dinophyceae): Blooms along the West Coast of Florida. Florida Department of Natural Resources Marine Laboratory Leaflet Series, 1(5), 12 pg.Google Scholar
  107. Yoder, J. A., C. R. McClain, J. O. Blanton, and L.-Y. Oey. 1987. Spatial scales in CZCS-chlorophyll imagery of the southeastern U.S. continental shelf. Limnology and Oceanography, 32(4):929-941.Google Scholar
  108. Zhang, H. 2002. Detecting Red Tides on the West Florida Shelf by Classification of SeaWiFS Satellite Imagery. Master’s thesis, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of South Florida.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frank E. Muller-Karger
    • 1
  • Chuanmin Hu
    • 2
  • Serge Andréfouët
    • 3
  • Ramón Varela
    • 4
  • Robert Thunell
    • 5
  1. 1.Institute for Marine Remote Sensing, College of Marine ScienceUniversity of South FloridaSt PetersburgUSA
  2. 2.Institute for Marine Remote Sensing, College of Marine ScienceUniversity of South FloridaSt PetersburgUSA
  3. 3.Institut de Recherche pour le DéveloppementNew Caledonia
  4. 4.Fundación La Salle de Ciencias NaturalesVenezuela
  5. 5.University of South CarolinaColumbiaUSA

Personalised recommendations