Fuelling Starbursts and AGN

  • Johan H. Knapen
Part of the Astrophysics and Space Science Library book series (ASSL, volume 319)

Abstract

There is considerable evidence that the circumnuclear regions of galaxies are intimately related to their host galaxies, most directly through their bars. There is also convincing evidence for relations between the properties of supermassive black holes in the nuclei of galaxies and those of their host galaxy. It is much less clear, however, how stellar (starburst) and non-stellar (AGN) activity in the nuclear regions can be initiated and fuelled. I review gas transport from the disk to the nuclear and circumnuclear regions of galaxies, as well as the statistical relationships between the occurrence of nuclear activity and mechanisms which can cause central gas concentration, in particular bars and interactions. There are strong indications from theory and modelling for bar-induced central gas concentration, accompanied by limited observational evidence. Bars are related to activity, but this is only a weak statistical effect in the case of Seyferts, whereas the relation is limited to specific cases in starbursts. There is no observational evidence for a statistical connection between interactions and activity in Seyferts, and some evidence for this in starbursts, but probably limited to the extremes, e.g., ULIRGs. Some interesting hints at relations between rings, including nuclear rings, and the presence of nuclear activity are emerging. It is likely that the connection between the inflow of gaseous fuel from the disk of a galaxy on the one hand and the activity in its nuclear region on the other is not as straightforward as sometimes suggested, because the spatial- or time-scales concerned may be significantly different.

Keywords

galaxies: kinematics and dynamics galaxies: spiral galaxies: structure galaxies: active galaxies: starburst 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams, T. F. 1977, ApJS, 33, 19ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alonso-Herrero, A.&Knapen, J. H. 2001, AJ, 122, 1350ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Armus, L., Heckman, T.,&Miley, G. 1987, AJ, 94, 831ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arsenault, R. 1989, A&A, 217, 66ADSGoogle Scholar
  5. Athanassoula, E. 1992, MNRAS, 259, 345ADSGoogle Scholar
  6. Bacon, R., et al. 2001, MNRAS, 326, 23ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bahcall, J. N., Kirhakos, S., Saxe, D. H.,&Schneider, D. P. 1997, ApJ, 479, 642ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Balick, B.&Heckman, T. M. 1982, ARA&A, 20, 431ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Balogh, M., et al. 2004, MNRAS, 348, 1355ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Beckman, J. E. 2001, in ASP Conf. Ser. 249, The Central Kiloparsec of Starbursts&AGN: The La Palma Connection, eds. J. H. Knapen, J. E. Beckman, I. Shlosman,&T. J. Mahoney ( San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific ), 11Google Scholar
  11. Begelman, M. C., Blandford, R. D.,&Rees, M. J. 1984, Reviews of Modern Physics, 56, 255ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bergvall, N., Laurikainen, E.,&Aalto, S. 2003, A&A, 405, 31ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Buta, R.&Combes, E 1996, Fundamentals of Cosmic Physics, 17, 95ADSGoogle Scholar
  14. Clements, D. L., Sutherland, W. J., McMahon, R. G.,&Saunders, W. 1996, MNRAS, 279, 477ADSGoogle Scholar
  15. Combes, F. 2001, in Advanced Lectures on the Starburst-AGN Connection, eds. I. Aretxaga, D. Kunth,&R. Mújica ( Singapore: World Scientific ), 223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Combes, E&Gerin, M. 1985, A&A, 150, 327ADSGoogle Scholar
  17. Crenshaw, D. M., Kraemer, S. B.,&Gabel, J. R. 2003, A. 1, 126, 1690Google Scholar
  18. de Robertis, M. M., Yee, H. K. C.,&Hayhoe, K. 1998, ApJ, 496, 93ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. de Vaucouleurs G., de Vaucouleurs A., Corwin J. R., Buta R. J., Paturel G., Fouque P., 1991, Third reference catalogue of Bright galaxies, 1991, New York: Springer-Verlag (RC3)Google Scholar
  20. Devereux, N. 1987, ApJ, 323, 91ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Disney, M. J., et al. 1995, Nature, 376, 150ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dressel, L. L. 1988, ApJ, 329, L69ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dunlop, J. S., McLure, R. J., Kukula, M. J., Baum, S. A., O’Dea, C. P.,&Hughes, D. H. 2003, MNRAS, 340, 1095ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Elmegreen, B. G. 1994, ApJ, 425, L73ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Erwin, P.&Sparke, L. S. 2002, AJ, 124, 65ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Eskridge, P. B., et al. 2000, AJ, 119, 536ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Eskridge, P. B., et al. 2002, ApJS, 143, 73ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ferrarese, L.&Merritt, D. 2000, ApJ, 539, L9ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Floyd, D. J. E., Kukula, M. J., Dunlop, J. S., McLure, R. J., Miller, L., Percival, W. J., Baum, S. A.&O’Dea, C. P. 2004, MNRAS, submitted (astro-ph/0308436)Google Scholar
  30. Fuentes-Williams, T.&Stocke, J. T. 1988, AJ, 96, 1235ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gebhardt, K., et al. 2000, ApJ, 539, L13ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Genzel, R., et al. 1998, ApJ, 498, 579ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. González-Delgado, R.M., Heckman, T., Leitherer, C., Meurer, G., Krolik, J., Wilson, A.S., Kinney, A., Loratkar, A. 1998, ApJ, 505, 174ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hawarden, T. G., Mountain, C. M., Leggett, S. K.,&Puxley, P. J. 1986, MNRAS, 221, 41 PADSGoogle Scholar
  35. Heller, C. H.&Shlosman, I. 1996, ApJ, 471, 143ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ho, L. C., Filippenko, A. V.,&Sargent, W. L. W. 1997, Api, 487, 591ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Huang, J. H., Gu, Q. S., Su, H. J., Hawarden, T. G., Liao, X. H.,&Wu, G. X. 1996, A&A, 313, 13ADSGoogle Scholar
  38. Hummel, E. 1981, A&A, 93, 93ADSGoogle Scholar
  39. Hunt, L. K.&Malkan, M. A. 1999, ApJ, 516, 660ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Isobe, T.&Feigelson, E. D. 1992, ApJS, 79, 197ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Jogee, S., Scoville, N. Z.,&Kenney, J. 2004, ApJ, in press (astro-ph/0402341)Google Scholar
  42. Jogee, S. 2004, in AGN Physics on All Scales, eds. D. Alloin, R. Johnson,&P. Lira, (Berlin: Springer), in pressGoogle Scholar
  43. Joseph, R. D.&Wright, G. S. 1985, MNRAS, 214, 87ADSGoogle Scholar
  44. Kelm, B., Focardi, P.,&Palumbo, G. G. C. 1998, A&A, 335, 912ADSGoogle Scholar
  45. Knapen, J. H. 2001, in ASP Conf. Ser. 249, The central kiloparsec of starbursts&AGN: The La Palma connection. eds. J. H. Knapen, J. E. Beckman, I. Shlosman,&T. J. Mahoney (San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific) 249, 37 (astro-ph/0108349)Google Scholar
  46. Knapen, J. H. 2004a, in Proc. of The neutral ISM in starburst galaxies, eds. S. Aalto, S. Hüttemeister,&A. Pedlar (San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific), in press (astroph/0312172)Google Scholar
  47. Knapen, J. H. 2004b, A&A, submittedGoogle Scholar
  48. Knapen, J. H., Beckman, J. E., Heller, C. H., Shlosman, I.,&de Jong, R. S. 1995a, ApJ, 454, 623ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Knapen, J. H., Beckman, J. E., Shlosman, I., Peletier, R. F., Heller, C. H.,&de Jong, R. S. 1995b, ApJ, 443, L73ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Knapen, J. H., Shlosman, I.,&Peletier, R. F. 2000, ApJ, 529, 93ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Knapen, J. H., Pérez-Ramírez, D.,&Laine, S. 2002, MNRAS, 337, 808ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Knapen, J. H., de Jong, R. S., Stedman, S.,&Bramich, D. M. 2003, MNRAS, 344, 527 (Erratum MNRAS 346, 333 )ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Knapen, J. H., Stedman, S., Bramich, D. M., Folkes, S. F.,&Bradley, T. R. 2004b, A&A, in pressGoogle Scholar
  54. Knapen, J. H., Whyte, L. F., de Blok, W. J. G.,&van der Hulst, J. M. 2004a, A&A, in press (astro-ph/0405107)Google Scholar
  55. Kormendy, J. 1979, ApJ, 227, 714ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kormendy, J.,&Kennicutt, R. C. 2004, ARA&A, in pressGoogle Scholar
  57. Kormendy, J.,&Richstone, D. 1995, ARA&A, 33, 581ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Laine, S., Shlosman, I., Knapen, J. H.,&Peletier, R. F. 2002, ApJ, 567, 97ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Laine, S., van der Marel, R. P., Rossa, J., Hibbard, J. E., Mihos, J. C., Böker, T.,&Zabludoff, A. I. 2003, Ai, 126, 2717ADSGoogle Scholar
  60. Larson, R. B.&Tinsley, B. M. 1978, ApJ, 219, 46ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Laurikainen, E.&Salo, H. 1995, A&A, 293, 683ADSGoogle Scholar
  62. Laurikainen, E., Salo, H.,&Rautiainen, P. 2002, MNRAS, 331, 880ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Laurikainen, E., Salo, H.,&Buta, R. 2004, ApJ, 607, 103ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lynden-Bell, D. 1969, Nature, 223, 690ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. MacKenty, J. W. 1990, ApJS, 72, 231ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Maiolino, R., Risaliti, G.,&Salvati, M. 1999, A&A, 341, L35ADSGoogle Scholar
  67. Martinet, L.&Friedli, D. 1997, A&A, 323, 363ADSGoogle Scholar
  68. Mihos, J. C.&Hernquist, L. 1996, ApJ, 464, 641ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Miller, C. J., Nichol, R. C., Gómez, P. L., Hopkins, A. M.,&Bernardi, M. 2003, ApJ, 597, 142ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Moles, M., Marquez, I.,&Perez, E. 1995, ApJ, 438, 604ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Möllenhoff, C., Matthias, M.,&Gerhard, O. E. 1995, A&A, 301, 359ADSGoogle Scholar
  72. Mulchaey, J. S.&Regan, M. W. 1997, ApJ, 482, L135ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Murphy, T. W., Armus, L., Matthews, K., Soifer, B. T., Mazzarella, J. M., Shupe, D. L., Strauss, M. A.,&Neugebauer, G. 1996, AJ, 111, 1025ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Noguchi, M. 1988, A&A, 203, 259ADSGoogle Scholar
  75. Phinney, E. S. 1994, in Mass-Transfer Induced Activity in Galaxies, ed. I. Shlosman ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press ), 1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Puxley, P. J., Hawarden, T. G.,&Mountain, C. M. 1988, MNRAS, 231, 465ADSGoogle Scholar
  77. Regan, M. W., Vogel, S. N.,&Teuben, P. J. 1997, ApJ, 482, L143ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Roussel, H., et al. 2001, A&A, 372, 406ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ryder, S. D., Knapen, J. H.,&Takamiya, M. 2001, MNRAS, 323, 663ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Sakamoto, K., Okumura, S. K., Ishizuki, S.,&Scoville, N. Z. 1999, ApJ, 525, 691ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sanders, D. B., Soifer, B. T., Elias, J. H., Madore, B. F., Matthews, K., Neugebauer, G.,&Scoville, N. Z. 1988, ApJ, 325, 74ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sanders, D. B.&Mirabel, I. R 1996, ARA&A, 34, 749ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Schmitt, H. R. 2001, AJ, 122, 2243ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Schwarz, M. P. 1984, MNRAS, 209, 93ADSGoogle Scholar
  85. Scoville, N. Z., Matthews, K., Carico, D. P.,&Sanders, D. B. 1988, ApJ, 327, L61ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Sellwood, J.A.&Wilkinson, A. 1993, Rep. Prog. Phys. 56, 173ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Shaw, M. A., Combes, F., Axon, D. J.,&Wright, G. S. 1993, A&A, 273, 31ADSGoogle Scholar
  88. Sheth, K., Vogel, S. N., Regan, M. W., Teuben, P. J., Harris, A. I., Thornley, M. D.,&Helfer, T. T. 2004, ApJ, submittedGoogle Scholar
  89. Shlosman, I. 1999, in ASP Conf. Ser. 187, The evolution of galaxies on cosmological timescales, eds. J. E. Beckman,&T. J. Mahoney ( San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific ), 100Google Scholar
  90. Shlosman, I. 2001, in ASP Conf. Ser. 249, The central kiloparsec of starbursts&AGN: The La Palma connection. eds. J. H. Knapen, J. E. Beckman, I. Shlosman,&T. J. Mahoney ( San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific ) 249, 55Google Scholar
  91. Shlosman, I. 2003, in ASP Conf. Ser. 290, Active Galactic Nuclei: From central engine to host galaxy, eds. S. Collin, F. Combes,&I. Shlosman ( San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific ), 427Google Scholar
  92. Shlosman, I., Frank, J.,&Begelman, M. C. 1989, Nature, 338, 45ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Shlosman, I., Begelman, M. C.,&Frank, J. 1990, Nature, 345, 679ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Shlosman, I., Peletier, R. F.,&Knapen, J. H. 2000, ApJ, 535, L83ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Simkin, S. M., Su, H. J.,&Schwarz, M. P. 1980, ApJ, 237, 404ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Wada, K. 2004, in Coevolution of black holes&galaxies, ed. L. C. Ho ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press ), 187Google Scholar
  97. Zurita, A., Relano, M., Beckman, J E,&Knapen, J. H. 2004, A&A, 413, 73ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Johan H. Knapen
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Astrophysics ResearchUniversity of HertfordshireHatfield, HertsUK

Personalised recommendations