Neural pathways and innervation of cnidocytes in tentacles of sea anemones
Our previously published studies are here reviewed detailing neuro-cnidocyte synapses, demonstrating putative neurotransmitter substances, and identifying complex neural pathways in sea anemones. Synapses were traced to their contacts on nematocytes and spirocytes by transmission electron microscopy of serial thin sections of tentacles. In five animals, cells containing microbasic p-mastigophores had synapses with clear vesicles, whereas cells containing basitrichous isorhizas had synapses with dense-cored vesicles, providing preliminary evidence for a selectivity of neurotransmitter types for different nematocysts. Either clear or dense-cored synaptic vesicles were also present at neuro-spirocyte contacts. Antho-RFamide immunoreactivity occurred in some anthozoan synaptic vesicles and immunogold labeling of serotonin was found at a neuro-spirocyte synapse. Neural pathways included direct innervation of spirocytes by sensory cells, sequential neuro-neuro-spirocyte and neuro-neuro-nematocyte synapses and reciprocal synapses involving axons of both sensory cells and ganglion cells. Such synaptic patterns resemble neuro-effector pathways found in higher animals and lay to rest the independent effector hypothesis for cnidocyte discharge in tentacles of sea anemones.
Key words: Aiptasia pallida, synapses, nematocytes, spirocytes, neurotransmitters
KeywordsGanglion Cell Synaptic Vesicle Sensory Cell Neural Pathway Clear Vesicle
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