Plant Hormones pp 358-376 | Cite as

Ethylene Responses in Seedling Growth and Development

Abstract

The gaseous plant hormone ethylene is an olefin hydrocarbon produced by all plants. Despite its simple chemical structure it orchestrates a myriad of complex functions. Ethylene controls processes as diverse as germination, root hair development, root nodulation, senescence of organs (including fruit ripening), differential cell growth, abscission, stress responses and resistance to necrotrophic pathogens (1). It is known that ethylene is effective to induce biological responses at nanomolar concentrations and that its response only takes minutes to be induced. Due to the important nature of its signaling the production of this hormone is a tightly regulated process, controlled by both developmental signals and response to environmental stimuli. To further the understanding of ethylene signaling in plants we need to fully comprehend how the hormone is synthesized, perceived and signal is transduced.

Keywords

Sugar Sucrose Agar Hydrocarbon Pseudomonas 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Abeles, FB, Morgan, PW, and Saltveit, Jr., ME (1992) Ethylene in Plant Biology, Ed 2 Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alonso JM, Hirayama T, Roman G, Nourizadeh S, and Ecker JR (1999) EIN2, a bifunctional transducer of ethylene and stress responses in Arabidopsis. Science 284: 2148-2152CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alonso JM and Ecker JR (2001) The ethylene pathway: a paradigm for plant hormone signaling and interaction. Sci STKE 70: RE1Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Alonso JM, Stepanova AN, Solano R, Wisman E, Ferrari S, Ausubel FM, Ecker JR (2003) Five components of the ethylene-response pathway identified in a screen for weak ethylene-insensitive mutants in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci 100: 2992-2997CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Berrocal-Lobo M, Molina A, Solano R (2002) Constitutive expression of ETHYLENERESPONSE- FACTOR1 in Arabidopsis confers resistance to several necrotrophic fungi. Plant J 29: 23-32CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bleecker A, Estelle M, Somerville C and Kende H (1988) Insensitivity to ethylene conferred by a dominant mutation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Science 241: 1086-1089CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bleecker AB and Kende H (2000) Ethylene: a gaseous signal molecule in plants. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 16: 1-18CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Braam J and Davis RW (1990) Rain-, wind-, and touch-induced expression of calmodulin and calmodulin-related genes in Arabidopsis. Cell. 1990 60: 357-64Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Burg, SP and Burg EA (1967) Inhibition of polar auxin transport by ethylene Plant Physiology 42: 1224-8CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cancel JD, Larsen PB (2002) Loss-of-function mutations in the ethylene receptor ETR1 cause enhanced sensitivity and exaggerated response to ethylene in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 129: 1557-67CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chao Q, Rothenberg M, Solano R, Roman G, Terzaghi W, and Ecker JR (1997) Activation of the ethylene gas response pathway in Arabidopsis by the nuclear protein ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE3 and related proteins. Cell. 89: 1133-44CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chang C and Stadler R (2001) Ethylene hormone receptor action in Arabidopsis. Bioessays. 23: 619-27CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chen YF, Randlett MD, Findell JL, and Schaller GE (2002) Localization of the ethylene receptor ETR1 to the endoplasmic reticulum of Arabidopsis. J Biol Chem. 277: 19861-6CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Clarke JD, Volko SM, Ledford H, Ausubel FM, and Dong X (2000) Roles of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene in cpr-induced resistance in arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 12: 2175-90CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Darwin, C and Darwin, F (1881) Darwins Gesammelte Werke Bd. 13. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ecker JR (1995) The ethylene signal transduction pathway in plants. Science 268: 667-75CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fujimoto SY, Ohta M, Usui A, Shinshi H, and Ohme-Takagi M (2000) Arabidopsis ethylene-responsive element binding factors act as transcriptional activators or repressors of GCC box-mediated gene expression. Plant Cell. 12: 393-404CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gao Z, Chen YF, Randlett MD, Zhao XC, Findell JL, Kieber JJ, Schaller GE (2003) Localization of the Raf-like kinase CTR1 to the endoplasmic reticulum of Arabidopsis through participation in ethylene receptor signaling complexes. J Biol Chem. 278: 34725-32CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Guo H and Ecker JR (2003) Plant Responses to Ethylene Gas are Mediated by SCFEBF1/EBF2-Dependent Proteolysis of EIN3 Transcription Factor. Cell 115: 667-677CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Guzman P and Ecker JR (1990) Exploiting the triple response of Arabidopsis to identify ethylene-related mutants. Plant Cell 2: 513-23CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hall, AE, JL Findell, GE Schaller, and Bleecker AB (2000) Ethylene perception by the ERS1 protein of Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology 123:1449-1457CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hall, AE and Bleeker AB (2003) Analysis of combinatorial loss-of-function mutants in the Arabidopsis ethylene receptors reveals that the ers1 etr1 double mutant has severe developmental defects that are EIN2 dependent. Plant Cell. 15: 2032-41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hirayama T, Kieber JJ, Hirayama N, Kogan M, Guzman P, Nourizadeh S, Alonso JM, Dailey WP, Dancis A, and Ecker JR (1999) RESPONSIVE-TO-ANTAGONIST1, a Menkes/Wilson disease-related copper transporter, is required for ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis. Cell. 97: 383-93CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Huang Y, Li H, Hutchison CE, Laskey J, and Kieber JJ (2003) Biochemical and functional analysis of CTR1, a protein kinase that negatively regulates ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 33: 221-33CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hwang I, Chen HC, and Sheen J (2002) Two-component signal transduction pathways in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 129: 500-15CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Johnson KA, Sistrunk ML, Polisensky DH, and Braam J (1998) Arabidopsis thaliana responses to mechanical stimulation do not require ETR1 or EIN2. Plant Physiol. 116: 643-9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kieber JJ, Rothenberg M, Roman G, Feldmann KA, and Ecker JR (1993) CTR1, a negative regulator of the ethylene response pathway in Arabidopsis, encodes a member of the raf family of protein kinases. Cell. 72: 427-41CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Larsen PB, and Chang C (2001) The Arabidopsis eer1 Mutant Has Enhanced Ethylene Responses in the Hypocotyl and Stem. Plant Physiol. 125: 1061-73CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Larsen PB, and Cancel JD (2003) Enhanced ethylene responsiveness in the Arabidopsis eer1 mutant results from a loss-of-function mutation in the protein phosphatase 2A A regulatory subunit, RCN1. Plant J. 34: 709-18CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lehman A, Black R, and Ecker JR (1996) HOOKLESS1, an ethylene response gene, is required for differential cell elongation in the Arabidopsis hypocotyl. Cell. 85: 183-94CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lorenzo O, Piqueras R, Sanchez-Serrano JJ, and Solano R (2003) ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 integrates signals from ethylene and jasmonate pathways in plant defense. Plant Cell. 15: 165-78CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    32. Nehring RB and Ecker JR, personal communicationGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Neljubow D (1901) Ueber die horizontale Nutation der Stengel von Pisum sativum und einiger Anderer. Pflanzen Beih. Bot. Zentralbl. 10: 128-39Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ouaked F, Rozhon W, Lecourieux D, and Hirt HA (2003) MAPK pathway mediates ethylene signaling in plants. EMBO J. 22: 1282-8CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Potuschak T, Lechner E, Parmentier Y, Yanagisawa S, Grava S, Koncz C and Genschik P (2003) EIN3-dependent regulation of plant ethylene hormone signaling by two Arabidopsis F box proteins: EBF1 and EBF2. Cell 115: 679–689CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rashotte AM, DeLong A, and Muday GK (2001) Genetic and chemical reductions in protein phosphatase activity alter auxin transport, gravity response, and lateral root growth. Plant Cell. 13: 1683-97CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Riechmann, J.L. and Meyerowitz EM (1998) The AP2/EREBP family of plant transcription factors. Biol. Chem. 379: 633-646CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rodriguez FI, Esch JJ, Hall AE, Binder BM, Schaller GE, Bleecker AB (1999) A copper cofactor for the ethylene receptor ETR1 from Arabidopsis. Science. 283: 996-8CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Roman, G., B. Lubarsky, J.J. Kieber, M. Rothenberg, and Ecker JR (1995) Genetic analysis of ethylene signal transduction in Arabidopsis thaliana: Five novel mutant loci integrated into a stress response pathway. Genetics 139: 1393-1409PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Schaller, GE and Bleecker AB (1995) Ethylene-binding sites generated in yeast expressing the Arabidopsis ETR1 gene. Science. 270: 1809-11CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Schaller, GE and Kieber JJ (Sept 30, 2002) Ethylene, The Arabidopsis Book, eds. C.R. Somerville and E.M. Meyerowitz, American Society of Plant Biologists, Rockville, MD, doi/10.1199/tab.0009, http://www.aspb.org/publications/arabidopsis/
  42. 42.
    Sistrunk ML, Antosiewicz DM, Purugganan MM, and Braam J (1994) Arabidopsis TCH3 encodes a novel Ca2+ binding protein and shows environmentally induced and tissue-specific regulation. Plant Cell. 6: 1553-65CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Smalle J, Haegman M, Kurepa J, Van Montagu M, and Straeten DV (1997) Ethylene can stimulate Arabidopsis hypocotyl elongation in the light. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 94: 2756-2761CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Solano R, Stepanova A, Chao Q, and Ecker JR (1998). Nuclear events in ethylene signaling: A transcriptional cascade mediated by ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE3 and ETHYLENE-RESPONSE-FACTOR1. Genes Dev. 12: 3703–3714CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Stepanova AN, and Ecker, JR (2000) Ethylene signaling: From mutants to molecules. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 3, 353–360CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Uchida A, and Yamamoto KT (2002) Effects of mechanical vibration on seed germination of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Plant Cell Physiol. 43: 647-51CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Vandenbussche F, Smalle J, Le J, Saibo NJ, De Paepe A, Chaerle L, Tietz O, Smets R, Laarhoven LJ, Harren FJ, Van Onckelen H, Palme K, Verbelen JP, and Van Der Straeten D (2003) The Arabidopsis mutant alh1 illustrates a cross talk between ethylene and auxin. Plant Physiol. 131: 1228-38CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Wang KL, Li H and Ecker JR (2002) Ethylene biosynthesis and signaling networks. Plant Cell. 14 Suppl:S131-51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Wang W, Hall AE, O'Malley R, Bleecker AB (2003) Canonical histidine kinase activity of the transmitter domain of the ETR1 ethylene receptor from Arabidopsis is not required for signal transmission. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 100: 352-7CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Woeste KE and Keiber JJ (2000) A Strong Loss-of-Function Mutation in RAN1 Results in Constitutive Activation of the Ethylene Response Pathway as Well as a Rosette- Lethal Phenotype. Plant Cell. 12: 443-455CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wright AJ, Knight H, and Knight MR (2002) Mechanically stimulated TCH3 gene expression in Arabidopsis involves protein phosphorylation and EIN6 downstream of calcium. Plant Physiol. 128: 1402-9CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Zhao XC, Qu X, Mathews DE, and Schaller GE (2002) Effect of ethylene pathway mutations upon expression of the ethylene receptor ETR1 from Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 130: 1983-91CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Plant Biology LaboratoryThe Salk Institute for Biological StudiesLa JollaUSA

Personalised recommendations