Mitochondrial Mutations in Plants

  • Kathleen J. Newton
  • Susan Gabay-Laughnan
  • Rosine De Paepe
Part of the Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration book series (AIPH, volume 17)


Mitochondrial mutations are widespread in the plant kingdom. They are easily detected when they result in maternal-defective or male-sterile plants. Neutral mutations that do not result in visible phenotypes also occur and are likely to be reservoirs for mitochondrial genome evolution. Because plant mitochondrial genes usually exhibit a slow rate of nucleotide Substitution, most of the reported mitochondrial mutations are rearrangements and/or deletions. Nuclear genes influence the generation and recovery of mitochondrial mutations because they control the Organization of mitochondrial genomes, as well as the expression of mitochondrial genes. The most extensively studied plant mitochondrial mutations are rearrangements resulting in chimeric genes that confer cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), and deletions that either restore fertility to CMS plants or that cause abnormal growth. Chimeric genes, and novel arrangements of coding and regulatory sequences, can result from recombination across repeats. A model explaining the generation of abnormal growth mutants, as well as reversions of CMS-associated genomes to male fertility, is discussed. Analysis of mutants also reveals the roles of mitochondria in stress responses and mitochondrial-nuclear signaling. Plant Systems offer the advantage that mitochondrial-nuclear combinations are readily manipulated, the experimental materials are easily accessible, and generation times are usually short. Thus, they represent useful modeis for the generation and analysis of mitochondrial mutations and for the understanding of nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions.


Mitochondrial Genome Male Sterility Mitochondrial Gene Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Chimeric Gene 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



chloroplast mutator


cytoplasmic male sterility


modifier ofcox2 transcripts


maternally-inherited distorted leaf


mitochondrial DNA


non-chromosomal stripe


non-chromosomal variegated


nuclear-mitochondrial sterility associated


petunia CMS-associated fused


pentatricopeptide repeat


Phaseolus vulgaris sterility sequence


rectifies TCM


restorer of fertility


teosinte-cytoplasm-associated miniature


terminal inverted repeats


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams KL, Daley DO, Qiu YL, Whelan J and Palmer JD (2000) Repeated, recent and diverse transfers of a mitochondrial gene to the nucleus in flowering plants. Nature 408: 354–357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akagi H, Sakamoto M, Shinjyo C, Shimada H and Fujimura T (1994) A unique sequence located downstream from the rice mitochondrial atp6 may cause male sterility. Curr Genet 25: 52–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Albert B, Godelle B, Atlan A, De Paepe R and Gouyon PH (1996) Dynamics of plant mitochondrial genome: model of a three-level selection process. Genetics 144: 369–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Albert B, Lelandais C, Pla M, Leuret V, Vitart V, Mathieu C, Sihachakr D, Godelle B and De Paepe R (2003) Amplification of Nicotiana sylvestris mitochondrial subgenomes is under nuclear control and is associated with phenotypic exchanges. Geneticall 7: 17–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Allen JO (1992) Teosinte cytoplasmic genomes: Interaction with maize nuclear genomes and molecular genetic characterization of the mitochondria. Ph.D. thesis, University of Wisconsin-MadisonGoogle Scholar
  6. Allen J, Emenhiser G and Kermicle J (1989) Miniature kernel and plant: interaction between teosinte cytoplasmic genomes and maize nuclear genomes. Maydica 34: 277–290Google Scholar
  7. Backert S, Nielsen BL and Börner T (1997) The mystery of the rings: structure and replication of mitochondrial genomes from higher plants. Trends Plant Sci 2: All-4M CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bendich A (1993) Reaching for the ring: the study of mitochondrial genome structure. Curr Genet 24: 279–290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bentolila S, Alfonso AA and Hanson MR (2002) A pentatricopeptide repeat-containing gene restores fertility to cytoplasmic male-sterile plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99: 10887–10892PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bergman P, Edqvist J, Farbos I and Glimelius K (2000) Malesterile tobaeco displays abnormal mitochondrial atpl transcript accumulation and reduced floral ATP/ADP ratio. Plant Mol Biol 42: 531–544PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Binder S, Marchfelder A and Brennicke A (1996) Regulation of gene expression in plant mitochondria. Plant Mol Biol 32: 303–314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boccara M, Boue C, Garmier M, De Paepe R and Boccara AC (2001) Infra-red thermography revealed a role for mitochondria in pre-symptomatic cooling during harpin-induced hypersensitive response. Plant J 28: 663–670PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boeshore ML, Hanson MR and Izhar S (1985) A variant mitochondrial DNA arrangement specific to Petunia sterile somatic hybrids. Plant Mol Biol 41:25–132Google Scholar
  14. Bonnema AB, Castillo C, Reiter N, Cunningham M, Adams HP and O’Connell M (1995) Molecular and ultrastructural analysis of a nonchromosomal variegated mutant. Plant Physiol 109:385–392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bonnett HT, Kofer W, Hakansson G and Glimelius K (1991) Mitochondrial involvement in petal and stamen development studied by sexual and somatic hybridization of Nicotiana species. Plant Science 80: 119–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bonnett H, Djurber I, Fajardo M and Glimelius K (1993) A mutation causing variegation and abnormal development in tobacco is associated with an altered mitochondrial DNA. Plant J 3: 519–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brangeon J, Sabar M, Gutierres S, Combettes B, Bove J, Gendy C, Chetrit P, Des Francs-Small CC, Pla M, Vedel F and De Paepe R (2000) Defective splicing of the first nad4 intron is associated with lack of several complex I subunits in the Nicotiana sylvestris NMS1 nuclear mutant. Plant J 21: 269–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brown GG and Zhang M (1995) Mitochondrial plasmids: DNA and RNA. In: CS Levings III and Vasil IK (eds) The Molecular Biology of Plant Mitochondria, Vol 3, pp 61–91. Kluwer Academic, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Budar F, Touzet P and De Paepe R (2003) The nucleo-mitochon-drial conflict in cytoplasmic male sterilities revisted. Genetica 117:3–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chang CC, Sheen J, Bligny M, Niwa Y, Lerbs-Mache S and Stern DB (1999) Functional analysis of two maize cDNAs encoding T7-like RNA polymerases. Plant Cell 11:911–926PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Chase CD and Ortega VM (1992) Organization of ATPA coding and 3’ flanking sequences associated with cytoplasmic male sterility in Phaseolus vulgaris L. Curr Genet 22: 147–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chetrit P, Rios R, De Paepe R, Vitart V, Gutierres S and Vedel F (1992) Cytoplasmic male sterility is associated with large deletions in the mitochondrial DNA of two Nicotiana sylvestris protoclones. Curr Genet 21: 131–137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Coe E (1983) Maternally inherited abnormal plant types in maize. Maydica 28: 151–167Google Scholar
  24. Conley CA and Hanson MR (1995) How do alterations in plant mitochondrial genomes disrupt pollen development? J Bioenerg Biomemb 27: 447–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cooper P and Newton K (1989) Maize nuclear background regulates the synthesis of a 22-kDa Polypeptide in Zea luxurians mitochondria. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86: 7423–7426PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cooper P, Butler E and Newton KJ (1990) Identification of a maize nuclear gene which influences the size and number of coxl transcripts in mitochondria of perrenial teosintes. Genetics 126: 461–467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Cui X, Wise RP and Schnable PS (1996) The rf2 nuclear restorer gene of male-sterile T-cytoplasm maize. Science 272: 1334–1336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dewey R, Levings CS III and Timothy D (1986) Novel recombinations in the maize mitochondrial genome produce a unique transcriptional unit in the Texas male sterile cytoplasm. Cell 44:439–449PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dewey RE, Timothy DH and Levings CS III (1987) A mitochondrial protein associated with cytoplasmic male sterility in the T cytoplasm of maize. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84: 5374–5378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dewey RE, Timothy DH and Levings CS III (1991) Chimeric mitochondrial genes expressed in the C male-sterile cytoplasm of maize. Curr Genet 20: 475–482PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Doebley J (1990a) Molecular evidence and the evolution of maize. Econ Botany 44: 6–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Doebley J (1990b) Molecular systematics of Zea (Gramineae). Maydica 35: 143–150Google Scholar
  33. Douce R and Neuburger M (1989) The uniqueness of plant mitochondria. Annu Rev Plant Mol Biol 40: 371–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ducos E, Touzet P and Boutry M (2001) The male sterile G cytoplasm of wild beet displays modified mitochondrial respiratory complexes. Plant J 26: 171–180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Duranceau M, Ghashghaie J and Brugnoli E (2001) Carbon isotope discrimination during photosynthesis and dark respira-tion in intact leaves of Nicotiana sylvestris: comparisons between wild type and mitochondrial mutant plants. Aus J Plant Physiol 28: 65–71Google Scholar
  36. Dutilleul C, Driscoll S, Comic G, De Paepe R, Foyer CH and Noctor G (2003 a) Functional mitochondrial complex I is required by tobacco leaves for optimal photosynthetic Performance in photorespiratory conditions and during transients. Plant Physiol 131: 264–275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dutilleul C, Garmier M, Noctor G, Mathieu C, Chetrit P, Foyer CH and DePaepe R (2003b) Leaf mitochondria modulate whole cell redox homeostasis, set antioxidant capacity and determine stress resistance through altered signaling and diurnal regulation. Plant Cell 15: 1212–1226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Duvick DN (1965) Cytoplasmic pollen sterility in com. Adv Genet 13: 1–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Edqvist J and Bergman P (2002) Nuclear identity specifies transcriptional initiation in plant mitochondria. Plant Mol Biol 49:59–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Farbos I, Mouras A, Bereterbide A and Glimelius K (2001) Defective cell proliferation in the floral meristem of alloplasmic plants of Nicotiana tabacum leads to abnormal floral organ development and male sterility. Plant J 26: 131–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Fauron CM and Casper M (1994) A second type of normal maize mitochondrial genome: an evolutionary link. Genetics 137: 875–882PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Fauron CM-R and Havlik M (1988) The BamHI/XhoI, Smal restriction maps of the normal maize mitochondrial genotype B37. Nucleic Acids Res 16: 10395–10396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fauron C-R, Havlik M and Bretteil R (1990) The mitochondrial genome Organization of a maize fertile cmsT revertant line is generated through recombination between two sets of repeats. Genetics 124: 423–428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Fauron C, Casper M, Gao Y and Moore B (1995a) The maize mitochondrial genome: dynamic, yet functional. Trends Genet 11: 228–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fauron C, Moore B and Casper M (1995b) Maize as a model of higher plant plasticity. Plant Sci 112: 11–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Fauron C-R, Casper M, Gesteland R and Albertson M (1992) A multi-recombination model for the mtDNA rearrangments seen in maize cmsT regenerated plants. Plant J 2: 949–958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Fey J and Marechal-Drouard L (1999) Compilation and analysis of plant mitochondrial promoter sequences: An illustration of a divergent evolution between monocot and dicot mitochon­dria. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 256: 409–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gabay-Laughnan S (2000) Restorers-of-fertility for CMS-S are present in maize and teosinte from Mexico. Maydica 45: 117–124Google Scholar
  49. Gabay-Laughnan S (2001) High frequency of restorers-of-fertility for CMS-EP in Zea mays L. Maydica 46: 125–122Google Scholar
  50. Gabay-Laughnan S, Zabala G and Laughnan JR (1995) S-type cytoplasmic male sterility in maize. In: Levings CS III and Vasil IK (eds) The Molecular Biology of Plant Mitochondria, Vol 3, pp 395–432. Kluwer Academic, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Garmier M, Dutilleul C, Chetrit P, Boccara M and De Paepe R (2002) Changes in antioxidant expression and harpin-induced hypersensitive response in a Nicotiana sylvestris mitochon­drial mutant. Plant Physiol Biochem 40: 561–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gerstel DU, Burns JA and Burk LG (1978) Cytoplasmic male sterility in Nicotiana, restoration of fertility and the nucleolus. Genetics 89: 157–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Gracen V and Grogan C (1974) Diversity and suitability for hybrid production of different sources of cytoplasmic male sterility in maize. Agron J 66: 654–657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gray MW, Hanic-Joyce PJ and Covello PS (1992) Transcription, processing and editing in plant mitochondria. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 43: 145–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gray MW, Burger G and Lang BF (1999) Mitochondrial evolution. Science 283: 1476–1481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gray MW, Lang BF, Cedergren R, Golding GB, Lemieux C, Sankoff D, Turmel M, Brossard N, Delage E, Littlejohn TG, Plante I, Rioux P, Saint-Louis D, Zhu Y and Burger G (1998) Genome structure and gene content in protist mitochondrial DNAs. Nucleic Acids Res 26: 865–878PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Gu J, Miles D and Newton KJ (1993) Analysis of leaf sectors in the NCS6 mitochondrial mutant of maize. Plant Cell 5: 963–971PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Gu J, Dempsey S and Newton KJ (1994) Rescue of a maize mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase mutant by tissue culture. Plant J 6: 787–794PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Gutierres S, Lelandais C, Paepe RD, Vedel F and Chetrit P (1997a) A mitochondrial sub-stoichiometric orf87—nad3— nadl exonA co-transcription unit present in solanaceae was amplified in the genus Nicotiana. Curr Genet 31: 55–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gutierres S, Sabar M, Lelandais C, Chetrit P, Diolez P, Degand H, Boutry M, Vedel F, de Kouchkovsky Y and De Paepe R (1997b) Lack of mitochondrial and nuclear-encoded subunits of complex I and alteration of the respiratory chain in Nicotiana sylvestris mitochondrial deletion mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94: 3436–9441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hanson MR (1991) Plant mitochondrial mutations and male sterility. Annu Rev Genet 25: 461–486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hanson MR and Folkerts O (1992) Structure and function of the higher plant mitochondrial genome. Int Rev Cytol 141: 129–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hanson MR, Nivison HT and Conley CA (1995) Cytoplasmic male sterility in Petunia. In: Levings CS III and Vasil IK (eds) The Molecular Biology of Plant Mitochondri, Vol 3, pp 497–514. Kluwer Academic, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hanson MR, Wilson RK, Bentolila S, Kohler RH and Chen HC (1999) Mitochondrial gene Organization and expression in petunia male fertile and sterile plants. J Hered 90: 362–368PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hartmann CH, Recipon MF, Jubier C, Valon E, Delcher-Besin Y, Henry J, De Buyser B, Lejeune A and Rode A (1994) Mitochondrial DNA variability detectable in a single wheat regenerant involves a rare recombinant event across a short repeat. Curr Genet 25: 456–464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Havey M (1997) Predominant paternal transmission of the mitochondrial genome in cucumber. J Heredity 88: 232–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hedtke B, Borner T and Weihe A (1997) Mitochondrial and chloroplast phage-type RNA polymerases in Arabidopsis. Science 277: 809–811PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hernould M, Suharsono S, Litvak S, Araya A and Mouras A (1993) Male-sterility induetion in transgenic tobacco plants with an unedited atp9 mitochondrial gene from wheat. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90: 2370–2374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Horn R and Friedt W (1999) CMS sources in sunflower: different origin but same mechanism? Theor App Genet 98: 195–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Howad W and Kempken F (1997) Cell type-specifie loss of atp6 RNA editing in cytoplasmic male sterile Sorghum bicolor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94: 11090–11095PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Howad W, Tang HV, Pring DR and Kempken F (1999) Nuclear genes from Tx CMS maintainer lines are unable to maintain atp6 RNA editing in any anther cell-type in the sorghum bicolor A3 cytoplasm. Curr Genet 36: 62–68Google Scholar
  72. Hunt MD and Newton KJ (1991) The NCS3 mutation: genetic evidence for the expression of ribosomal protein genes in Zea mavs mitochondria. EMBO J 10: 1045–1052PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Ikeda TM and Gray MW (1999) Identification and characterization of T3/T7 bacteriophage-like RNA polymerase sequences in wheat. Plant Mol Biol 40: 567–578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Iwabuchi M, Kyozuka J and Shimamoto K (1993) Processing followed by complete editing of an altered mitochondrial atp6 RNA restores fertility of cytoplasmic male sterile rice. EMBO J 12: 1437–1446Google Scholar
  75. Janska H and Mackenzie SA (1993) Unusual mitochondrial genome Organization in cytoplasmic male sterile common bean and the nature of cytoplasmic reversion to fertility. Genetics 135: 869–879PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Janska H, Sarria R, Woloszynska M, Arrieta-Montiel M and Mackenzie SA (1998) Stoichiometric shifts in the common bean mitochondrial genome leading to male sterility and spontaneous reversion to fertility. Plant Cell 10: 1163–1180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Jia MH, He S, Vanhouten W and Mackenzie S (1997) Nuclear fertility restorer genes map to the same linkage group in cytoplasmic male-sterile bean. Theor Appl Gen 95: 205–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Johns C, Lu M, Lyznik A and Mackenzie S (1992) A mitochondrial DNA sequence is associated with abnormal pollen development in cytoplasmic male sterile bean plants. Plant Cell 4: 435–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Karpova O and Newton K (1999) A partially assembled complex I in NAD4-deflcient mitochondria of maize. Plant J 17: 511–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Karpova OV, Kuzmin EV, Elthon TE and Newton KJ (2002) Differential expression of alternative oxidase genes in maize mitochondrial mutants. Plant Cell 14: 3271–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kaul MLH (1988) Male Sterility in Higher Plants. Monographs on Theoretical and Applied Genetics, Vol 10, pp 356–382. Springer-Verlag, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  82. Kempken F and Pring D (1999) Male sterility in higher plants: fundamentals and applications. In: Esser K (ed) Progress in Botany, Vol 60, pp 139–166. Springer-Verlag, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kitagawa J, Gerrath J, Posluszny U and Wolyn D (1994) Developmental and morphological analyses of homeotic cytoplasmic male sterile and fertile carrot flowers. Sex Plant Reprod 7:41–50Google Scholar
  84. Köhler RH, Hörn R, Lossl A and Zetsche K (1991) Cytoplasmic male sterility in sunflower is correlated with the co-transcription of a new open reading frame with the atpA gene. Mol Gen Genet 227: 369–376Google Scholar
  85. Krömer S (1995) Respiration during photosynthesis. Ann Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 46: 45–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Kubo T, Nishizawa S, Sugawara A, Itchoda N, Estiati A and Mikami T (2000) The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) reveals a novel gene for tRNA(Cys)(GCA). Nucleic Acids Res 28:2571–2576PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. L’Homme Y and Brown GG (1993) Organizational differences between cytoplasmic male sterile and male fertile Brassica mitochondrial genomes are confined to a single transposed locus. Nucleic Acids Res 21: 1903–1909PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. L’Homme Y, Stahl RJ, Li XQ, Hameed A and Brown GG (1997) Brassica nap cytoplasmic male sterility is associated with expression of a mtDNA region containing a chimeric gene similar to the pol CMS-associated orf224 gene. Curr Genet 31:325–335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Laser B, Oettler G and Kuck U (1995) RNA editing of the mitochondrial atpA/atp9 co-transcript of triticale, carrying the timopheevi cytoplasmic male sterility cytoplasm from wheat. Plant Physiol 107: 663–640PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Lauer M, Knudsen C, Newton KJ, Gabay-Laughnan SJ and Laughnan JR (1990) A partially deleted mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene in the NCS6 abnormal growth mutant of maize. New Biol 2: 179–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Laughnan J and Gabay-Laughnan S (1983) Cytoplasmic male sterility in maize. Ann Rev Genet 17: 27–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Laughnan JR, Gabay Laughnan S and Carlson J (1981) Characteristics of cms-S reversion to male fertility in maize. In: Stadler Genetic Symposium, Vol 13, pp 93–114Google Scholar
  93. Laver HK, Reynolds SJ, Moneger F and Leaver CJ (1991) Mitochondrial genome Organization and expression associated with cytoplasmic male sterility in sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Plant J 1: 185–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Lee BH, Lee H, Xiong L and Zhu JK (2002) A mitochondrial complex I defect impairs cold-regulated nuclear gene expression. Plant Cell 14: 1235–1251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Lelandais C, Albert B, Gutierres S, De Paepe R, Godelle B, Vedel F and Chetrit P (1998) Organization and expression of the mitochondrial genome in the Nicotiana sylvestris CMSII mutant. Genetics 150: 873–882PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Levings CS III (1993) Thoughts on cytoplasmic male sterility in cms-Tmaize. Plant Cell 5: 1285–1290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Levings CS III, Sederoff R, Hu W and Timothy D (1983) Relationship among the plasmid-like DNAs of the maize mitochondria. In: Ciferri O and Dure L (eds) Structure and Function of Plant Genomes, pp 363–371. Plenum Publishing Corp., New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Li XQ, Jean M, Landry BS and Brown GG (1998) Restorer genes for different forms of Brassica cytoplasmic male sterility map to a Single nuclear locus that modifies transcripts of several mitochondrial genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95: 10032–10037PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Li XQ, Chetrit P, Vedel F, De Paepe R and Ambard-Bretteville F (1988) Regeneration of male sterile protoclones of Nicotiana sylvestris with mitochondrial variations. Curr Genet 13: 261–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Lilly JW and Havey MJ (2001) Small, repetitive DNAs contribute significantly to the expanded mitochondrial genome of cucumber. Genetics 159: 317–328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Lilly JW, Bartoszewski G, Malepszy S and Havey MJ (2001) A major deletion in the cueumber mitochondrial genome sorts with the MSC phenotype. Curr Genet 40: 144–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Liu F, Cui X, Homer HT, Weiner H and Schnable PS (2001) Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase activity is required for male fertility in maize. Plant Cell 13: 1063–1078PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Lonsdale D, Hodge T and Fauron C-R (1984) The physical map and Organization of the mitochondrial genome from fertile cytoplasm of maize. Nucleic Acids Res 12: 5141–5156Google Scholar
  104. Mackenzie S (1991) Identification of a sterility-inducing cytoplasm in a fertile accession line of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Genetics 127:411–416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Mackenzie SA and Bassett MJ (1987) Genetics of fertility restoration in cytoplasmic male sterile Phaseolus vulgaris L. 1. Cytoplasmic alteration by a nuclear restorer gene. Theor Appl Gen 74: 642–645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Maier RM, Zeitz P, Kossel H, Bonnard G, Gualberto JM and Grienenberger JM (1996) RNA editing in plant mitochondria and chloroplasts. Plant Mol Biol 32: 343–365PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Makaroff C (1995) Cytoplasmic male sterility in Brassica. In: Levings CS III and Vasil IK (eds) The Molecular Biology of Plant Mitochondria, Vol 3, pp 515–555. Kluwer Academic Publisher, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Malepszy S, Burza W and Smiech M (1996) Characterization of a cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) somaclonal variant with paternal inheritance. J Appl Genet 37: 65–78Google Scholar
  109. Marechal-Drouard L, Weil JH and Dietrich A. (1993) Transfer RNAs and transfer RNA genes in plants. Ann Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 44: 13–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Marienfeld JR and Newton KJ (1994) The maize NCS2 abnormal growth mutant has a chimeric nad4-nad7 mitochondrial gene and is associated with reduced Complex I function. Genetics 138: 855–863PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Marienfeld J, Unseld M and Brennicke A (1999) The mitochondrial genome of Arabidopsis is composed of both native and immigrant information. Trends Plant Sci 4: 495–502PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Martinez-Zapater JM, Gil P, Capel J and Somerville CR (1992) Mutations at the Arabidopsis CHM locus promote rearrangements of the mitochondrial genome. Plant Cell 4: 889–899PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Maxwell DP, Wang Y and McIntosh L (1999) The alternative oxidase lowers mitochondrial reactive oxygen produetion in plant cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96: 8271–8276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Mulligan RM, Leon P and Walbot V (1991) Transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of maize mitochondrial gene expression. Mol Cell Biol 11: 533–543PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Newton KJ (1995) Aberrant growth phenotypes associated with mitochondrial genome rearrangements in higher plants. In: Levings CS III and Vasil IK (eds) The Molecular Biology of Plant Mitochondria, Vol 3, pp 585–596. Kluwer Academic Publisher, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Newton K and Coe EJ (1986) Mitochondrial DNA changes in abnormal growth mutants of maize. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 7363–7366PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Newton KJ and Courtney KM (1991) Molecular analysis of mitochondria from teosinte-cytoplasm-associated minature. Maydica 36: 153–159Google Scholar
  118. Newton KJ and Gabay Laughnan S (1998) Abnormal growth and male sterility associated with mitochondrial DNA rearrangements in plants. In: Singh KK (ed) Mitochondrial DNA Mutations in Aging, Disease and Cancer, pp 365–381. Springer-Verlag, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Newton KJ, Coe EH, Gabay-Laughnan S and Laughnan JR (1989) Abnormal growth phenotypes and mitochondrial mutants in maize. Maydica 34: 291–296Google Scholar
  120. Newton KJ, Knudsen C, Gabay-Laughnan S and Laughnan JR (1990) An abnormal growth mutant in maize has a defective mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene. Plant Cell 2: 107–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Newton KJ, Winberg B, Yamato K, Lupoid S and Stern D (1995) Evidence for a novel mitochondrial promoter preceding the cox2 gene of perennial teosintes. EMBO J 14: 585–593PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Newton KJ, Mariano JM, Gibson CM, Kuzmin E and Gabay-Laughnan S (1996) Involvement of S2 episomal sequences in the generation of NCS4 deletion mutation in maize mitochondria. Dev Genet 19: 277–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Nivison HT, Sutton CA, Wilson RK and Hanson MR (1994) Sequencing, processing, and localization of the petunia CMS-associated mitochondrial protein. Plant J 5: 613–623PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Notsu Y, Masood S, Nishikawa T, Kubo N, Akiduki G, Nakazono M, Hirai A and Kadowaki K (2002) The complete sequence of the rice (Oryza sativa L.) mitochondrial genome: frequent DNA sequence acquisition and loss during the evolution of flowering plants. Mol Genet Genom 268: 434–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Oda K, Yamato K, Ohta E, Nakamura Y, Takemura M, Nozato N, Akashi K, Kanegae T, Ogura Y, Kohchi T et al. (1992) Gene Organization deduced from the complete sequence of liverwort Marchantia polymorpha mitochondrial DNA. A primi­tive form of plant mitochondrial genome. J Mol Biol 223: 1–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Oro A, Newton KJ and Walbot V (1985) Molecular analysis of the inheritance and stability of the mitochondrial genome of an inbred line of maize. Theor Appl Genet 70: 287–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Padmasree K, Padmavathi L and Raghavendra AS (2002) Essentiality of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism for photo-synthesis: optimization of carbon assimilation and protection against photoinhibition. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 37:71–119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Palmer JD and Shields CR (1984) Tripartite structure of the Brassica campestris mitochondrial genome. Nature 307: 437–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Palmer JD and Herbon LA (1988) Plant mitochondrial DNA evolves rapidly in structure, but slowly in sequence. J Mol Evol 28: 87–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Palmer JD, Adams KL, Cho Y, Parkinson CL, Qiu YL and Song K (2000) Dynamic evolution of plant mitochondrial genomes: mobile genes and introns and highly variable mutation rates. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97: 6960–6966PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Pla M, Mathieu C, De Paepe R, Cherit P and Vedel F (1995) Deletion of the last two exons of the mitochondrial nadl gene results in lack of the NAD7 Polypeptide in a Nicotiana sylvestris CMS mutant. Mol Gen Genet 248: 79–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Pring DR, Levings CS III, Hu WWL and Timothy DH (1977) Unique DNA associated with mitochondria in the “S”-type cytoplasm of male-sterile maize. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74: 2904–2908PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Rapp WD and Stern DB (1992) A conserved 11 nucleotide sequence contains an essential promoter element of the maize mitochondrial atpgene. EMBO J 11: 1065–1073PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Rasmusson AG, Heiser VV, Zabaleta E, Brennicke A and Grohmann L (1998) Physiological, biochemical and molecular aspects of mitochondrial complex I in plants. Biochim Biophys Acta 1364: 101–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Roussell DL, Thompson DL, Pallardy SG, Miles D and Newton KJ (1991) Chloroplast structure and function is altered in the NCS2 maize mitochondrial mutant. Plant Physiol 96: 232–238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Sabar M, De Paepe R and de Kouchkovsky Y (2000) Complex I impairment, respiratory compensations, and photosynthetic decrease in nuclear and mitochondrial male sterile mutants of Nicotiana sylvestris. Plant Physiol 124: 1239–1250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Sabar M, de Kouchkovsky Y, Gutierres S, Vedel F and De Paepe R(1998) Mitochondrial complex I dysfunction: compatibility with survival and reproduction in cytoplasmic and nuclear male-sterile mutants of Nicotiana sylvestris. In: Moller IM, Gardestrom P, Glimelius K and Glaser E (eds) Proceedings of the 5th International Congress of Plant Mitochondria: From Gene to Function, pp 87–90. Backhuys Publisher, LeidenGoogle Scholar
  138. Sakamoto W, Kondo H, Murata M and Motoyoshi F (1996) Altered mitochondrial gene expression in a maternal distorted leaf mutant of Arabidopsis induced by chloroplast mutator. Plant Cell 8: 1377–1390PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Saumitou-Laprade P, Cuguen J and Vernet P (1994) Cytoplasmic male sterility in plants: Molecular evidence and the nucleocytoplasmic conflict. Trends Ecol Evol 9: 431–435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Schardl CL, Pring DR and Lonsdale DM (1985) Mitochondrial DNA rearrangements associated with fertile revertants of S-type male-stcrile maize. Cell 43: 361–368PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Schnable PS and Wise RP (1994) Recovery of heritable, transposon-induced, mutant alleles of the rf 2 nuclear restorer ofT-cytoplasm maize. Genetics 136: 1171–1185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Schnable PS and Wise RP (1998) The molecular basis of cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoration. Trends Plant Sci 3: 175–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Senda M, Harada T, Mikami T, Sugiura M and Kinoshita T (1991) Genomic Organization and sequence analysis of the cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene from normal and malesterile mitochondria in sugar beet. Curr Genet 19: 175–181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Senthilkumar P and Narayanan K (1999) Analysis of rice mitochondrial genome Organization using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. J Biosci 24: 215–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Singh M, Hamel N, Menassa R, Li XQ, Young B, Jean M, Landry BS and Brown GG (1996) Nuclear genes associated with a Single Brassica CMS restorer locus influence transcripts of three different mitochondrial gene regions. Genetics 143: 505–516PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Small ID and Peeters N (2000) The PPR motif-a TPR-related motif prevalent in plant organellar proteins. Trends Biochem Sci 25: 46–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Small I, Isaac P and Leaver CJ (1987) Stoichiometric differences in DNA molecules containing the atpA gene suggest mechanisms for the mitochondrial genome diversity in maize. EMBO J 6: 865–869PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Small I, Suffolk R and Leaver CJ (1989) Evolution of plant mitochondrial genomes via substoichiometric intermediates. Cell 58: 69–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Spassova M, Moneger F, Leaver CJ, Petrov P, Atanassov A, Nijkamp H and Hille J (1994) Characterisation and expression of the mitochondrial genome of a new type of cytoplasmic male-sterile sunflower. Plant Mol Biol 26: 1819–1831PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Stern DB and Newton KJ (1985) Mitochondrial gene expression in Cucurbitaceae: conserved and variable features. Curr Genet 9: 395–404PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Tang HV, Pring DR, Muza FR and Yan B (1996) Sorghum mitochondrial orf25 and a related chimeric configuration of a male-sterile cytoplasm. Curr Genet 29: 265–274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Tsunewaki K (1992) Nuclear genome and polyploidy in wheat. Tanpakushitsu Kakusan Koso 37: 1003–1013PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Umbeck P and Gengenbach B (1983) Reversion of male-sterile T cytoplasm maize to male fertility in tissue culture. Crop Sci 23:584–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Unseld M, Marienfeld JR, Brandt P and Brennicke A (1997) The mitochondrial genome of Arabidopsis thaliana contains 57 genes in 366,924 nucleotides. Nat Genet 15: 57–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Vanlerberghe GC and Mclntosh L (1994) Mitochondrial electron transport regulation of nuclear gene expression. Studies with the alternative oxidase gene of tobacco. Plant Physiol 105:867–874PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Vedel F, Vitart V, Pla M, Gutierres S, Chetrit P and De Paepe R (1994) Molecular basis of nuclear and cytoplasmic male sterility in higher plants. Plant Physiol Biochem 32: 601–618Google Scholar
  157. Vitart V, De Paepe R, Mathieu C, Chetrit P and Vedel F (1992) Amplification of substoiehiometric recombinant mitochondrial DNA sequences in a nuclear, male sterile mutant regenerated from protoplast culture in Nicotiana sylvestris. Mol Gen Genet 233: 193–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Ward CG (1995) The Texas male-sterile cytoplasm of maize. In: Levings CS III and Vasil IK (eds) The Molecular Biology of Plant Mitochondria, Vol 3, pp 433–459. Kluwer Academic, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Ward BL, Anderson RS and Bendich AJ (1981) The mitochon­drial genome is large and variable in a family of plants (Cucurbitaceae). Cell 25: 793–803PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Weissinger A, Timothy D, Levings CI, Hu W and Goodman M (1982) Unique plasmid-like mitochondrial DNAs from indigenous maize races of Latin America. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79: 1–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Wen L and Chase CD (1999) Pleiotropic effects of a nuclear restorer-of-fertility locus on mitochondrial transcripts in male-fertile and S male-sterile maize. Curr Genet 35: 521–526PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Wise RP and Pring DR (2002) Nuclear-mediated mitochondrial gene regulation and male fertility in higher plants: Light at the end of the tunnel? Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99: 10240–10242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Wise RP, Fliss AE, Pring DR and Gengenbach BG (1987a) Urf-13-T of T cytoplasm maize mitochondria encodes a 13 kDa Polypeptide. Plant Mol Biol 9: 121–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Wise RP, Pring DR and Gengenbach BG (1987b) Mutation to male fertility and toxin insensitivity in Texas (T)-cytoplasm maize is associated with a frameshift in a mitochondrial open reading frame. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84: 2858–2862 Wise RP, Gobelman-Werner K, Pei D, Dill CL and Schnable PS (1999) Mitochondrial transcript processing and restoration of male fertility in T-cytoplasm maize. J Hered 90: 380–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Yamato K and Newton K (1999) Heteroplasmy and homoplasmy for maize mitochondrial mutants: a rare homoplasmic nad4 deletion mutant plant. J Hered 90: 369–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Yamato K, Ogura Y, Kanegae T, Yamada Y and Ohyama K (1992) Mitochondrial genome strueture of rice Suspension culture from cytoplasmic male sterile line (A-58CMS): reappraisal of the master circle. Ther Appl Genet 83: 279–288Google Scholar
  167. Young EG and Hanson MR (1987) A fused mitochondrial gene associated with cytoplasmic male sterility is developmentally regulated. Cell 50: 41–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Zabala G, Gabay-Laughnan S and Laughnan JR (1997) The nuclear gene Rf3 affects the expression of the mitochondrial chimeric sequence R implicated in S-type male sterility in maize. Genetics 147: 847–860PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Zabaleta E, Mouras A, Hernould M, Suharsono and Araya A (1996) Transgenic male-sterile plant induced by an unedited atp9 gene is restored to fertility by inhibiting its expression with antisense RNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93: 11259–11263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kathleen J. Newton
    • 1
  • Susan Gabay-Laughnan
    • 2
  • Rosine De Paepe
    • 3
  1. 1.Division of Biological SciencesTucker Hall University of MissouriColumbiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Plant BiologyUniversity of IllinoisUrbanaUSA
  3. 3.Institut de Biotechnologie des Plantes, Laboratoire Mitochondries et Métabolisme, CNRS UMR 8618Université Paris-Sud XIOrsayFrance

Personalised recommendations