Agrobacterium-Mediated Genetic Transformation of Cotton
Cotton is the most important fibre crop of the world with an annual production of about 20 million metric tones from about 33.5 million hectares in 2002 (1). Cotton seed is also an important oilseed crop and is the world’s third largest in terms of global crushings from an annual production of about 33 million metric tonnes in 2002 and a source of high quality protein meal (2). The genus Gossypium, a member of the Malvaceae, contains 49 species distributed throughout most tropical and subtropical regions of the world (3). The most common commercially grown cotton varieties belong to four species of Gossypium — G. arboreum L., G. barbadense L., G. herbaceum L. and G. hirsutum L. Over 90% of the annual cotton crop in the world is produced from the upland cotton varieties of G. hirsutum. This species is generally thought to have a natural origin that involved the combining of genomes from plants related to extant diploid species from the Old World (A genome) and the New World (D genome). Diploid (2n = 2x = 26) species — G. arboreum and G. herbaceum (AA) are still being grown in the African and Asian continents whereas the allotetraploid (4n = 4x = 52) species — G. hirsutum and G. barbadense (AADD) are being grown worldwide. The largest cotton producers are China, USA and India.
KeywordsSucrose Income Chlorine Dehydration Kanamycin
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