Agrobacterium-Mediated Genetic Transformation of Cotton
Cotton is the most important fibre crop of the world with an annual production of about 20 million metric tones from about 33.5 million hectares in 2002 (1). Cotton seed is also an important oilseed crop and is the world’s third largest in terms of global crushings from an annual production of about 33 million metric tonnes in 2002 and a source of high quality protein meal (2). The genus Gossypium, a member of the Malvaceae, contains 49 species distributed throughout most tropical and subtropical regions of the world (3). The most common commercially grown cotton varieties belong to four species of Gossypium — G. arboreum L., G. barbadense L., G. herbaceum L. and G. hirsutum L. Over 90% of the annual cotton crop in the world is produced from the upland cotton varieties of G. hirsutum. This species is generally thought to have a natural origin that involved the combining of genomes from plants related to extant diploid species from the Old World (A genome) and the New World (D genome). Diploid (2n = 2x = 26) species — G. arboreum and G. herbaceum (AA) are still being grown in the African and Asian continents whereas the allotetraploid (4n = 4x = 52) species — G. hirsutum and G. barbadense (AADD) are being grown worldwide. The largest cotton producers are China, USA and India.
KeywordsSomatic Embryo Somatic Embryogenesis Embryogenic Callus Gossypium Hirsutum Callus Line
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Anon (2003). Cotton: Review of the World Situation. ICAC (International Cotton Advisory Committee), 56: 1–20.Google Scholar
- 2.Anon (2000). Oilseeds: World Production. Oil World Monthly, 43: 478.Google Scholar
- 3.Fryxell PA (1984). Taxonomy and Germplasm Resources. In: Kohel RJ, Lewis CF (eds.), Cotton (pp. 27–57). Madison, Wisconsin: American Society of Agronomy.Google Scholar
- 4.Jenkins JN (1993). Cotton. In: Traditional Crop Breeding Practices: An Historical Review to Serve as a Baseline for Assessing the Role of Modern Biotechnology (pp. 61–70). Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.Google Scholar
- 6.James C (2002). Global Status of Commercialized Transgenic crops: 2002. ISAAA Briefs No. 27: Preview edn. Ithaca, NY: ISAAA.Google Scholar
- 8.Rajasekaran K, Chlan CA and Cleveland TE (2001). Tissue culture and genetic transformation of cotton. In: Jenkins JN, Saha S (eds.), Genetic Improvement of Cotton (pp. 269–290). Enfield, NH: Science Publishers, Inc.Google Scholar
- 11.Van Haute E, Joos H, Maes S, Warren G, Van Montagu M and Schell J (1983). Intergeneric transfer and exchange recombination of restriction fragments cloned in pBR322: a novel strategy for reversed genetics of the Ti plasmids of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The EMBO Journal, 2: 411–418.Google Scholar
- 14.Singh M and Krikorian AD (1981). White’s standard nutrient solution. Annals of Botany, 47: 133–139.Google Scholar