Pathophysiology of acute renal failure

  • M. Bonello
  • R. Ratanarat
  • G. Salvatori
  • H. Oudemans Van-Straaten
  • R. Bellomo
  • C. Ronco


Acute renal failure (ARF) affects 5–7% of all hospitalized patients (1–3) and continues to be associated with poor outcomes (4–10). This syndrome is common in the intensive care unit (ICU), with a reported incidence of 1–25% (11, 12) depending on the population being studied and the criteria used to define its presence. Uncomplicated ARF can usually be managed outside the ICU setting and carries a good prognosis, with mortality rates less than 5–10% (2, 13). In contrast, ARF complicating non-renal organ system failure in the ICU setting is associated with mortality rates of 50–70%, which have remained relatively constant over recent decades (9, 14–19). It is generally accepted that ARF in the ICU setting is associated with a high mortality rate (20, 21), and that ICU patients who develop ARF have a higher mortality than those who do not (9, 11, 12, 22–24). Furthermore, evidence exists that ARF is a specific independent risk factor for poor prognosis in critically ill patients (12, 21). Table 1 summarizes some studies reporting the incidence of, and mortality from, ARF in ICU patients.


Acute Renal Failure Renal Blood Flow Acute Tubular Necrosis Proximal Tubule Cell Renal Tubular Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Bonello
  • R. Ratanarat
  • G. Salvatori
  • H. Oudemans Van-Straaten
  • R. Bellomo
  • C. Ronco

There are no affiliations available

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