Beta-2-microglobulin amyloidosis

  • Michel Jadoul
  • Charles van Ypersele de Strihou


The first report of the carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in hemodialysis (HD) patients was published in 1975 (1). Five years later Assenat et al. reported that amyloid was present in tissue harvested during CTS surgery in HD patients (2). In 1985 Gejyo et al. identified β2-microglobulin (β2m) as the main constituent of “dialysis-related” amyloid deposits (3), a complication hence named β2-microglobulin amyloidosis, now abbreviated as Aβ2m in accordance with WHO guidelines on the nomenclature of amyloidosis (4). The subsequent 10–12 years were mainly devoted to the elucidation of the determinants of β2m metabolism in renal failure and dialysis, as well as to the careful delineation of the clinical picture, epidemiology, pathology and diagnosis of Aβ2m (5— 10). The beneficial influence of renal transplantation on Aβ2m was also reported (11,12). Over the past 5— 7 years emphasis has been put on more fundamental aspects of the amyloidogenic process (13–15).


Amyloid Deposit Amyloid Fibril Bone Cyst Nephrol Dial Transplant Human Synovial Fibroblast 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Warren DJ, Otieno LS. Carpal tunnel syndrome in patients on intermittent haemodialysis. Postgrad Med J. 1975;51:450–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Assenat H, Calemard E, Charra B et al. [Hemodialysis: carpal tunnel syndrome and amyloid substance]. Nouv Presse Med. 1980;9:1715.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gejyo F, Yamada T, Odani S et al. A new form of amyloid protein associated with chronic hemodialysis was identified as beta 2-microglobulin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1985;129:701–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Westermark P, Benson MD, Buxbaum JN et al. Amyloid fibril protein nomenclature — 2002. Amyloid. 2002;9:197–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bardin T. Arthropathy and carpal tunnel syndrome of β2-microglobulin amyloidosis. In: van Ypersele C, Drüeke TB, editors. Dialysis Amyloid. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996:71–97.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    van Ypersele de Strihou C, Jadoul M, Malghem J et al. Effect of dialysis membrane and patient ’s age on signs of dialysisrelated amyloidosis. The Working Party on Dialysis Amyloidosis. Kidney Int. 1991;39:1012–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chanard J, Bindi P, Lavaud S et al. Carpal tunnel syndrome and type of dialysis membrane. Br Med J. 1989;298:867–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jadoul M, Garbar C, Noel H et al. Histological prevalence of beta 2-microglobulin amyloidosis in hemodialysis: a prospective post-mortem study. Kidney Int. 1997;51:1928–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Floege J, Burchert W, Brandis A et al. Imaging of dialysisrelated amyloid (Aβ-amyloid) deposits with 131I-beta 2-microglobulin. Kidney Int. 1990;38:1169–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Charra B, Calemard E, Laurent G. Chronic renal failure treatment duration and mode: their relevance to the late dialysis periarticular syndrome. Blood Purif. 1988;6:117–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jadoul M, Drueke T, Zingraff J, van Ypersele de Strihou C. Does dialysis-related amyloidosis regress after transplantation? Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1997;12:655–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mourad G, Argiles A. Renal transplantation relieves the symptoms but does not reverse beta 2-microglobulin amyloidosis. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1996;7:798–804.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Trinh CH, Smith DP, Kalverda AP et al. Crystal structure of monomeric human beta-2-microglobulin reveals clues to its amyloidogenic properties. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2002; 99:9771–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    McParland VJ, Kalverda AP, Homans SW, Radford SE. Structural properties of an amyloid precursor of beta(2)microglobulin. Nat Struct Biol. 2002;9:326–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Verdone G, Corazza A, Viglino P et al. The solution structure of human beta2-microglobulin reveals the prodromes of its amyloid transition. Protein Sci. 2002;11:487–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Borgatti PP, Lusenti T, Franco V et al. Guyon ’s syndrome in a long-term haemodialysis patient. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1991;6:734–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Limaye V, Frankham A, Disney A, Pile K. Evaluation of hand function in patients undergoing long term haemodialysis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2001;60:278–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sethi D, Hutchison AJ, Cary NR et al. Macroglossia and amyloidoma of the buttock: evidence of systemic involvement in dialysis amyloid. Nephron. 1990;55:312–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Brancaccio D, Gallieni M, Padovese P et al. Dialysis amyloidosis with massive popliteal deposition of beta 2-microglobulin amyloid. Lancet. 1988;2:802.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Floege J, Brandis A, Nonnast-Daniel B et al. Subcutaneous amyloid-tumor of beta-2-microglobulin origin in a long-term hemodialysis patient. Nephron. 1989;53:73–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Maldague B, Malghem J, Van de Berg B. Radiology of dialysis amyloidosis. In: van Ypersele C, Drüeke TB, editors. Dialysis Amyloid. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996: 98–135.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Miyata T, Jadoul M, Kurokawa K, van Ypersele de Strihou C. Beta-2 microglobulin in renal disease. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1998;9:1723–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Koch KM. Dialysis-related amyloidosis. Kidney Int. 1992; 41:1416–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Allain TJ, Stevens PE, Bridges LR, Phillips ME. Dialysis myelopathy: quadriparesis due to extradural amyloid of beta 2 microglobulin origin. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1988; 296:752–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Jadoul M, van Ypersele de Strihou C. Complications of longterm dialysis. In: Brown EA, Parfrey PS editors. Beta2-microglobulin Amyloidosis. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999;121–44.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mount SL, Eltabbakh GH, Hardin NJ. Beta-2 microglobulin amyloidosis presenting as bilateral ovarian masses: a case report and review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol. 2002;26:130–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Munoz-Gomez J, Gomez-Perez R, Sole-Arques M, LlopartBuisan E. Synovial fluid examination for the diagnosis of synovial amyloidosis in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing haemodialysis. Ann Rheum Dis. 1987;46: 324–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hardouin P, Flipo RM, Lecomte-Houcke M et al. [Amylose in hemodialysed patients. Research of a systemic distribution by rectal biopsy]. Presse Med. 1987;16:445–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Varga J, Idelson BA, Felson D et al. Lack of amyloid in abdominal fat aspirates from patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis. Arch Intern Med. 1987;147:1455–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Assounga AG, Bascoul S, Canaud B et al. A study of beta 2-microglobulin skin deposits in dialyzed patients and healthy controls. Am J Kidney Dis. 1990;15:556–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Garbar C, Jadoul M, Noel H, van Ypersele de Strihou C. Histological characteristics of sternoclavicular beta 2-microglobulin amyloidosis and clues for its histogenesis. Kidney Int. 1999;55:1983–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ehlerding G, Schaeffer J, Drommer W et al. Alterations of synovial tissue and their potential role in the deposition of beta2-microglobulin-associated amyloid. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1998;13:1465–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Jones CH, Kanagasundaram NS, Coral AP et al. Combined Waldenstrom ’s macroglobulinaemia associated AL and beta-2-microglobulin amyloidosis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1997;12:2708–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Argiles A, Mourad G, Kerr PG et al. Cells surrounding haemodialysis-associated amyloid deposits are mainly macrophages. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1994;9:662–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Depierreux M, Goldman M, Fayt I et al. Osteoarticular amyloidosis associated with haemodialysis: an immunoultrastructural study. J Clin Pathol. 1988;41:158–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Athanasou NA, Ayers D, Rainey AJ et al. Joint and systemic distribution of dialysis amyloid. Q J Med. 1991;78:205–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Garcia-Garcia M, Argiles, Gouin-Charnet A et al. Impaired lysosomal processing of beta2-microglobulin by infiltrating macrophages in dialysis amyloidosis. Kidney Int. 1999;55: 899–906.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Inoue H, Saito I, Nakazawa R et al. Expression of inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules in haemodialysisassociated amyloidosis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1995;10: 2077–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Matsuo K, Ikizler TA, Hoover RL et al. Transforming growth factor-beta is involved in the pathogenesis of dialysisrelated amyloidosis. Kidney Int. 2000;57:697–708.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Inoue S, Kuroiwa M, Ohashi K et al. Ultrastructural organization of hemodialysis-associated beta 2-microglobulin amyloid fibrils. Kidney Int. 1997;52:1543–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Jadoul M, Garbar C, van Ypersele de Strihou C. Pathological aspects of beta(2)-microglobulin amyloidosis. Semin Dial. 2001;14:86–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Linke RP, Schaeffer J, Gielow P et al. Production of recombinant human beta2-microglobulin for scintigraphic diagnosis of amyloidosis in uremia and hemodialysis. Eur J Biochem. 2000;267:627–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Schaffer J, Burchert W, Floege J et al. Recombinant versus natural human 111In-beta2-microglobulin for scintigraphic detection of Abeta2m amyloid in dialysis patients. Kidney Int. 2000;58:873–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Nelson SR, Hawkins PN, Richardson S et al. Imaging of haemodialysis-associated amyloidosis with 123I-serum amyloid P component. Lancet. 1991;338:335–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kay J, Benson CB, Lester S et al. Utility of high-resolution ultrasound for the diagnosis of dialysis-related amyloidosis. Arthritis Rheum. 1992;35:926–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Jadoul M, Malghem J, Vande Berg B, van Ypersele de Strihou C. Ultrasonographic detection of thickened joint capsules and tendons as marker of dialysis-related amyloidosis: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1993;8:1104–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Coari G, Iagnocco A, Maggi S et al. Sonographic findings in haemodialysis-related chronic arthropathy. Eur Radiol. 1996;6:890–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Cardinal E, Buckwalter KA, Braunstein EM et al. Amyloidosis of the shoulder in patients on chronic hemodialysis: sonographic findings. Am J Roentgenol. 1996;166:153–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Slavotinek JP, Coates PT, McDonald SP et al. Shoulder appearances at MR imaging in long-term dialysis recipients. Radiology. 2000;217:539–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Otake S, Tsuruta Y, Yamana D et al. Amyloid arthropathy of the hip joint: MR demonstration of presumed amyloid lesions in 152 patients with long-term hemodialysis. Eur Radiol. 1998;8:1352–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bernageau J, Bardin T, Goutallier D et al. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in shoulders of hemodialyzed patients. Clin Orthop. 1994;304:91–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Escobedo EM, Hunter JC, Zink-Brody GC, Andress DL. Magnetic resonance imaging of dialysis-related amyloidosis of the shoulder and hip. Skeletal Radiol. 1996;25:41–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Theodorou DJ, Theodorou SJ, Resnick D. Imaging in dialysis spondyloarthropathy. Semin Dial. 2002;15:290–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Ohashi K, Hara M, Kawai R et al. Cervical discs are most susceptible to beta 2-microglobulin amyloid deposition in the vertebral column. Kidney Int. 1992;41:1646–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Jadoul M, Noel H, van Ypersele de Strihou C. Beta 2-microglobulin amyloidosis in a patient treated exclusively by continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis. 1990;15:86–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Renaud H, Fournier A, Moriniere P et al. Erosive osteoarthropathy associated with beta 2-microglobulin amyloidosis in a uraemic patient treated exclusively by long-term haemofiltration with biocompatible membranes. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1988;3:820–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Benz RL, Siegfried JW, Teehan BP. Carpal tunnel syndrome in dialysis patients: comparison between continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis populations. Am J Kidney Dis. 1988;11:473–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Jadoul M, Garbar C, Vanholder R et al. Prevalence of histological beta2-microglobulin amyloidosis in CAPD patients compared with hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int. 1998; 54:956–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Zingraff JJ, Noel LH, Bardin T et al. Beta 2-microglobulin amyloidosis in chronic renal failure. N Engl J Med. 1990; 323:1070–1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Chanard J, Lavaud S, Toupance O et al. Carpal tunnel syndrome and type of dialysis membrane used in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis. Arthritis Rheum. 1986; 29:1170–1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Miura Y, Ishiyama T, Inomata A et al. Radiolucent bone cysts and the type of dialysis membrane used in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis. Nephron. 1992;60: 268–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kuchle C, Fricke H, Held E, Schiffl H. High-flux hemodialysis postpones clinical manifestation of dialysis-related amyloidosis. Am J Nephrol. 1996;16:484–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Koda Y, Nishi S, Miyazaki S et al. Switch from conventional to high-flux membrane reduces the risk of carpal tunnel syndrome and mortality of hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int. 1997;52:1096–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Brunner FP, Brynger H, Ehrich JH et al. Case control study on dialysis arthropathy: the influence of two different dialysis membranes: data from the EDTA Registry. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1990;5:432–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kessler M, Netter P, Azoulay E et al. Dialysis-associated arthropathy: a multicentre survey of 171 patients receiving haemodialysis for over 10 years. The Co-operative Group on Dialysis-associated Arthropathy. Br J Rheumatol. 1992;31: 157–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Omori K, Kazama JJ, Song J et al. Association of the MCP-1 gene polymorphism A-2518G with carpal-tunnel syndrome in hemodialysis patients. Amyloid. 2002;9:175–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hou FF, Owen WF Jr. Beta 2-microglobulin amyloidosis: role of monocytes/macrophages. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2002;11:417–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Locatelli F, Marcelli D, Conte F et al. Comparison of mortality in ESRD patients on convective and diffusive extracorporeal treatments. The Registro Lombardo Dialisi E Trapianto. Kidney Int. 1999;55:286–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lehnert H, Jacob C, Marzoll I et al. Prevalence of dialysisrelated amyloidosis in diabetic patients. Diabetes Amyloid Study Group. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1996;11: 2004–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Cross PA, Bartley CJ, McClure J. Amyloid in prostatic corpora amylacea. J Clin Pathol. 1992;45:894–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Gejyo F, Homma N, Suzuki Y, Arakawa M. Serum levels of beta 2-microglobulin as a new form of amyloid protein in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis. N Engl J Med. 1986;314:585–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Espinosa M, Martin-Malo A, Alvarez de Lara MA et al. Alpha-interferon therapy increases serum beta2-microglobulin levels in hemodialysis patients. Clin Nephrol. 2001;56: 378–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Sonikian M, Gogusev J, Zingraff J et al. Potential effect of metabolic acidosis on beta 2-microglobulin generation: in vivo and in vitro studies. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1996;7:350–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Zaoui PM, Stone WJ, Hakim RM. Effects of dialysis membranes on beta 2-microglobulin production and cellular expression. Kidney Int. 1990;38:962–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    van Ypersele de Strihou C, Floege J, Jadoul M, Koch KM. Amyloidosis and its relationship to different dialysers. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1994;9 (Suppl. 2):156–61.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kabanda A, Jadoul M, Pochet JM et al. Determinants of the serum concentrations of low molecular weight proteins in patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Kidney Int. 1994;45:1689–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Lin CL, Yang CW, Chiang CC et al. Long-term on-line hemodiafiltration reduces predialysis beta-2-microglobulin levels in chronic hemodialysis patients. Blood Purif. 2001;19: 301–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Raj DS, Ouwendyk M, Francoeur R, Pierratos A. Beta(2)-microglobulin kinetics in nocturnal haemodialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2000;15:58–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Sethi D, Murphy CM, Brown EA et al. Clearance of beta-2-microglobulin using continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Nephron. 1989;52:352–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Tielemans C, Dratwa M, Bergmann P et al. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis vs haemodialysis: a lesser risk of amyloidosis? Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1988;3:291–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Cheung AK, Agodoa LY, Daugirdas JT et al. Effects of hemodialyzer reuse on clearances of urea and beta2-microglobulin. The Hemodialysis (HEMO) Study Group. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1999;10:117–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Canaud B, Assounga A, Kerr P et al. Failure of a daily haemofiltration programme using a highly permeable membrane to return beta 2-microglobulin concentrations to normal in haemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1992;7:924–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Connors LH, Shirahama T, Skinner M et al. In vitro formation of amyloid fibrils from intact beta 2-microglobulin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1985;131:1063–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Linke RP, Hampl H, Lobeck H et al. Lysine-specific cleavage of beta 2-microglobulin in amyloid deposits associated with hemodialysis. Kidney Int. 1989;36:675–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Campistol JM, Bernard D, Papastoitsis G et al. Polymerization of normal and intact beta 2-microglobulin as the amyloidogenic protein in dialysis-amyloidosis. Kidney Int. 1996;50:1262–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Garcia-Garcia M, Gouin-Charnet A, Mourad G, Argiles A. Monomeric and dimeric beta 2-microglobulin may be extracted from amyloid deposits in vitro. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1997;12:1192–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Stoppini MS, Arcidiaco P, Mangione P et al. Detection of fragments of beta2-microglobulin in amyloid fibrils. Kidney Int. 2000;57:349–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Heegaard NH, Roepstorff P, Melberg SG, Nissen MH. Cleaved beta 2-microglobulin partially attains a conformation that has amyloidogenic features. J Biol Chem. 2002; 277:11184–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Eakin CM, Knight JD, Morgan CJ et al. Formation of a copper specific binding site in non-native states of beta-2-microglobulin. Biochemistry. 2002;41:10646–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Yamaguchi I, Hasegawa K, Naiki H et al. Extension of A beta2M amyloid fibrils with recombinant human beta2-microglobulin. Amyloid. 2001;8:30–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Yamaguchi I, Hasegawa K, Takahashi N et al. Apolipoprotein E inhibits the depolymerization of beta 2-microglobulin-related amyloid fibrils at a neutral pH. Biochemistry. 2001;40:8499–507.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Miyata T, Oda O, Inagi R et al. Beta 2-microglobulin modified with advanced glycation end products is a major component of hemodialysis-associated amyloidosis. J Clin Invest. 1993;92:1243–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Hou FF, Jiang JP, Guo JQ et al. Receptor for advanced glycation end products on human synovial fibroblasts: role in the pathogenesis of dialysis-related amyloidosis. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2002;13:1296–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Schwalbe S, Holzhauer M, Schaeffer J et al. Beta 2-microglobulin associated amyloidosis: a vanishing complication of long-term hemodialysis? Kidney Int. 1997;52:1077–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Baz M, Durand C, Ragon A et al. Using ultrapure water in hemodialysis delays carpal tunnel syndrome. Int J Artif Organs. 1991;14:681–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Izuhara Y, Miyata T, Saito K et al. Ultrapure dialysate decreases plasma pentosidine, a marker of ‘carbonyl stress’. Am J Kidney Dis. 2004 (In press).Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Schiffl H, Lang SM, Fischer R. Ultrapure dialysis fluid slows loss of residual renal function in new dialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2002;17:1814–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Argiles A, Mourad G, Gouin-Charnet A, Schmitt-Bernard CF. Antiproteases and cells in the pathogenesis of beta(2)-microglobulin amyloidosis: role of alpha(2)-macroglobulin and macrophages. Nephron. 2000;86:1–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Argiles A, Mourad G, Axelrud-Cavadore C et al. Highmolecular-mass proteins in haemodialysis-associated amyloidosis. Clin Sci (Lond). 1989;76:547–52.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Pepys MB, Herbert J, Hutchinson WL et al. Targeted pharmacological depletion of serum amyloid P component for treatment of human amyloidosis. Nature. 2002;417: 254–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Sprague SM, Popovtzer MM. Is beta 2-microglobulin a mediator of bone disease? Kidney Int. 1995;47:1–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Balint E, Marshall CF, Sprague SM. Role of interleukin-6 in beta2-microglobulin-induced bone mineral dissolution. Kidney Int. 2000;57:1599–607.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Chen NX, O ’Neill KD, Niwa T, Moe SM. Signal transduction of beta2m-induced expression of VCAM-1 and COX-2 in synovial fibroblasts. Kidney Int. 2002;61: 414–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Moe SM, Singh GK, Bailey AM. Beta2-microglobulin induces MMP-1 but not TIMP-1 expression in human synovial fibroblasts. Kidney Int. 2000;57:2023–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Zhang H, Liew CC, Marshall KW. Microarray analysis reveals the involvement of beta-2 microglobulin (B2M) in human osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2002;10: 950–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Ohashi K, Kisilevsky R, Yanagishita M. Affinity binding of glycosaminoglycans with beta(2)-microglobulin. Nephron. 2002;90:158–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Athanasou NA, Puddle B, Sallie B. Highly sulphated glycosaminoglycans in articular cartilage and other tissues containing beta 2 microglobulin dialysis amyloid deposits. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1995;10:1672–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Ohashi K, Hara M, Yanagishita M et al. Proteoglycans in haemodialysis-related amyloidosis. Virchows Arch. 1995; 427:49–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Nakazawa R, Azuma N, Suzuki M et al. A new treatment for dialysis-related amyloidosis with beta 2-microglobulin adsorbent column. Int J Artif Organs. 1993;16:823–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Okutsu I, Hamanaka I, Ninomiya S et al. Results of endoscopic management of carpal-tunnel syndrome in long-term haemodialysis versus idiopathic patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1993;8:1110–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Naito M, Ogata K, Shiota E, Oyama M. Amyloid bone cysts of the femoral neck. Impending fractures treated by curettage and bone grafting. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1994;76: 922–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Tan SY, Irish A, Winearls CG et al. Long term effect of renal transplantation on dialysis-related amyloid deposits and symptomatology. Kidney Int. 1996;50:282–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Ameer GA, Grovender EA, Ploegh H et al. A novel immunoadsorption device for removing beta2-microglobulin from whole blood. Kidney Int. 2001;59:1544–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Winchester JF, Ronco C, Brady JA et al. The next step from high-flux dialysis: application of sorbent technology. Blood Purif. 2002;20:81–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Schardijn GH, Statius van Eps LW. Beta 2-microglobulin: its significance in the evaluation of renal function. Kidney Int. 1987;32:635–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michel Jadoul
  • Charles van Ypersele de Strihou

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations