Pulmonary aspects of dialysis patients

  • Marc E. De Broe
  • Robert L. Lins
  • Wilfried A. De Backer

Abstract

Patients with acute or end-stage chronic renal failure, whether treated by dialysis or not, frequently develop pulmonary complications such as edema, pleural effusion and infection (1). In addition, hemodialysis treatment is always accompanied by a variable degree of hypoxemia at the start or toward the end of the treatment session. Respiratory failure secondary to hyperkalemia is a life-threatening, fortunately rare complication in chronic hemodialysis.

Keywords

Permeability Phosphorus Depression Pneumonia Respiration 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Bush A, Gabriel R. Pulmonary function in chronic renal failure: effects of dialysis and transplantation. Thorax. 1991;46:424–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Guyton A, Linsey A. Effect of elevated left atrial pressure and decreased plasma protein concentration on the development of pulmonary edema. Circ Res. 1959;7:649–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Metry G, Wegenius G, Wikström B et al. Lung density for assessment of hydration status in hemodialysis patients using the computed tomographic densitometry technique. Kidney Int. 1997;52:1635–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bright R. Tabular view of the morbid appearance in 100 cases connected with albuminous urine, with observations. Guys Hosp Rep. 1836;1:380–400.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Maher JF. Uremic pleuritis. Am J Kidney Dis. 1987;10: 19–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Criado A, Mena A, Figuerdo R, Reige E, Avello F. Late perforation of superior vena cava and effusion caused by central venous catheter. Anaesth Intens Care. 1981;9:286–8.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Berger HW, Rammohan G, Neff MS, Buhain WJ. Uremic pleural effusion. A study in 14 patients on chronic dialysis. Ann Intern Med. 1975;82:362–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Galen MA, Steinberg SM, Lowrie FG, Lazarus JM, Hampers CL, Merrill JP. Hemorrhagic pleural effusion in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis. Ann Intern Med. 1975;82: 359–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rodelas R, Rakowski TA, Argy WP, Schreiner GE. Fibrosing uremic pleuritis during hemodialysis. J Am Med Assoc. 1980;243:2424–5.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brown CM, Sloan DF, Berns AS, Kanter A. Fibrosing uremic pleuritis during hemodialysis. J Am Med Assoc. 1981; 245:705.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cheung AK, Henderson LW. Effects of complement activation by hemodialysis membranes. Am J Nephrol. 1986; 6:81–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Graham KA, Goodship THJ, Bushinsky DA et al. Does metabolic acidosis have clinically important consequences in dialysis patients? Semin Dial. 1998;11:14–24.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Duarte R. Blood pressure, ventilation and lipid imbalance during hemodialysis: effect of dialysate composition. Blood Purif. 1985;3:199–214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Eiser A. Pulmonary gas exchange during hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis: interaction between respiration and metabolism. Am J Kidney Dis. 1985;6:131–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Garella S, Chang BS. Hemodialysis-associated hypoxemia. Am J Nephrol. 1984;4:273–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Johnson NR, Bischel KD, Boylen CT. Hypoxia and hypoventilation in chronic hemodialysis. Clin Res. 1970;19:145.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bischel MD, Scoles BG, Mohler JG. Evidence for pulmonary microembolization during hemodialysis. Chest. 1975;67: 335–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Aurigemma NM, Feldman NT, Gottlieb M, Ingram RH, Lazarus JM, Lowrie FG. Arterial oxygenation during hemodialysis. N Engl J Med. 1977;297:871–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Skubitz KM, Craddock PR. Reversal of hemodialysis granulocytopenia and pulmonary leucostasis. A clinical manifestation of selective downregulation of granulocyte response to C5a desarg. J Clin Invest. 1981;67:1383–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wathen RL, Ferris FZ, Nagar D, Keshaviah P. An alternative explanation for dialysis-induced arterial hypoxemia. Kidney Int. 1978;14:689.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hampl H, Paeper H, Unger V, Fischer CH, Resa I, Kessel M. Hemodynamic changes during hemodialysis, sequential ultrafiltration and hemofiltration. Kidney Int. 1980;18: S83–8.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ganss R, Aarseth HP, Norby B. Prevention of hemodialysis associated hypoxemia by use of low-concentration bicarbonate dialysate. ASAIO J. 1992;38:820–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    De Backer WA, Verpooten GA, Borgonjon DA, Vermeire PA, Lins RR, De Broe ME. Hypoxemia during hemodialysis: effects of different membranes and dialysate compositions. Kidney Int. 1983;23:738–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dolan MJ, Whipp BJ, Davidson WD, Weitzman RE, Wasserman K. Hypopnea associated with acetate hemodialysis: carbon dioxide-flow dependent ventilation. N Engl J Med. 1981;305:72–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ikeda T, Hirasawa Y, Aizawa Y, Shibita A, Gejyo F, Ei K. Effect of acetate upon arterial gases. J Dial. 1979;3:135–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Eiser AR, Jayamanne D, Kokseng C, Che H, Slifkin RF, Neff MS. Contrasting alterations in pulmonary gas exchange during acetate and bicarbonate hemodialysis. Am J Nephrol. 1982;2:123–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Oh MS, Uribarri J, Del Monte MI et al. A mechanism of hypoxemia during hemodialysis: consumption of CO2 in metabolism of acetate. Am J Nephrol. 1985;5:366–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Romaldini H, Rodriguez-Roisin R, Lopez FA, Ziegler TW, Bencowitz HZ, Wagner PD. The mechanism of arterial hypoxemia during hemodialysis. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1984; 129:780–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Romaldini H, Stabile C, Faro S et al. Pulmonary ventilation during hemodialysis. Nephron. 1982;32:131–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Heyrman RM, De Backer WA, Van Waeleghem JP, Wittesaele WM, De Broe ME. The effect of acetate on ventilation in hemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1989:4:1060–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Nissenson A. Prevention of dialysis induced hypoxemia by bicarbonate dialysis. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs. 1980;26:339–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Raja R, Kramer M, Rosenbaum JL, Bolisay C, Krug M. Prevention of hypotension during isoosmolar hemodialysis with bicarbonate dialysate. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs. 1980;26:375–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Vanstone J, Bauer J, Carey J. The effect of dialysate sodium concentration on body fluid distribution during hemodialysis. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs. 1980;26:283–6.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cohn MA, Rao AS, Broudy M, Birch S, Watson H, Atkins N. The respiratory inductive plethysmograph: a new non-invasive monitor of respiration. Bull Eur Physiopathol Resp. 1983;18:643–58.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Herrero JA, Trobo JI, Torrente J et al. Hemodialysis with acetate, DL-lactate and bicarbonate: a hemodynamic and gasometric study. Kidney Int. 1994;46:1167–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kaplow LS, Goffinet JA. Profound neutropenia during the early phase of hemodialysis. J Am Med Assoc. 1968;203: 1135–7.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Craddock PR, Fehr J, Brigham KL, Kronenberg R, Jacobs HS. Complement and leucocyte-mediated pulmonary dysfunction in hemodialysis. N Engl J Med. 1977;296:769–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Craddock PR, Fehr J, Dalmasso AP, Brigham KL, Jacobs HS. Hemodialysis leucopenia: pulmonary vascular leucostasis resulting from complement activation by dialyzer cellophane membranes. J Clin Invest. 1977;59:879–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Amin Arnaout M, Hakim RM, Todd RF, Dana N, Colten HR. Increased expression of an adhesion-promoting surface glycoprotein in the granulocytopenia of hemodialysis. N Engl J Med. 1985;312:457–62.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Alvarez V, Pulido R, Campanero MR, Paraiso V, de Landázuri MO, Sanchez-Madrid F. Differentially regulated cell surface expression of leukocyte adhesion receptors on neutrophils. Kidney Int. 1991;40:899–905.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Himmelfarb J, Zaoui P, Hakim R. Modulation of granulocyte LAM-1 and MAC-1 during dialysis. A prospective, randomized controlled trial. Kidney Int. 1992;41:388–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Thylén P, Lundahl J, Fernvik E, Hed J, Svenson SB, Jacobson SH. Mobilization of an intracellular glycoprotein (Mac-1) on monocytes and granulocytes during hemodialysis. Am J Nephrol. 1992;12:393–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Skoutelis AT, Kaleridis VE, Goumenos DS et al. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte rigidity is defective in patients with chronic renal failure. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2000;15: 1788–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Girndt M, Kaul H, Leitnaker CK, Sester M, Sester U, Köhler H. Selective sequestration of cytokine-producing monocytes during hemodialysis treatment. Am J Kidney Dis. 2001;37:954–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Horl WH, Jochum M, Heidland A, Fritz H. Release of granulocyte proteinases during hemodialysis. Am J Nephrol. 1983;3:213–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ritchey EE, Wallin JD, Shah SV. Chemiluminescence and superoxide anion production by leukocytes from chronic hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int. 1981;19:349–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    De Broe ME, Nouwen EJ, Van Waeleghem JP. On the mechanism and site of production of B2 microglobulin during hemodialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1987;2:124–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Cheung AK, Baranowski RL, Wayman AL. The role of thromboxane in cuprophan-induced pulmonary hypertension. Kidney Int. 1987;31:1072–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Nyhlén K, Hultkvist-Bengtsson U, Nilsson M, Rippe B. Leukocyte sequestration in isolated guinea pig lungs during extracorporeal circulation: effects on microvascular function. Blood Purif. 2000;18:121–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Skubitz KM, Butterfield J, Ma K, Skubitz APN. Changes in neutrophil surface phenotype during hemodialysis. Inflammation. 1998;22:559–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ward RA. Phagocytic cell function as an index of biocompatibility. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1994;9(Suppl. 2): 46–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kramer AA, Postler G, Salhab KF, Mendez C, Carey LC, Rabb H. Renal ischemia/reperfusion leads to macrophagemediated increase in pulmonary vascular permeability. Kidney Int. 1999;55:2362–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Sheridan BC, McIntyre RCJ, Moore EE, Meldrum DR, Agrafojo J, Fullerton DA. Neutrophils mediate pulmonary vasomotor dysfunction in endotoxin-induced acute lung injury. J Trauma. 1997;42:391–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Koike K, Moore EE, Moore FA, Franciose RJ, Fontes B, Kim FJ. CD1 1 b blockade prevents lung injury despite neutrophil priming after gut ischemia/reperfusion. J Trauma. 1995;39:23–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Sherlock J, Ledwith JK, Letteri J. Hypoventilation and hypoxemia during hemodialysis: reflex response to removal of CO2 across the dialyzer. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs. 1977;23:406–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Dumler F, Levin NW. Leucopenia and hypoxemia, unrelated effects of hemodialysis. Arch Intern Med. 1979;139:1103–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Tolchin N, Roberts JL, Lewis EJ. Respiratory gas exchange by high efficiency hemodialyzer. Nephron. 1978;21:137–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Brautbar N, Shinaberger JH, Miller JH, Nachman M. Hemodialysis hypoxemia: evaluation of mechanisms utilizing sequential ultrafiltration dialysis. Nephron. 1980;26:96–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    De Broe ME, De Backer WA, Verpooten GA, Vermeire PA, Van Waeleghem JP, Herman AG. Leucopenia and hypoxemia during hemodialysis with different types of membranes: effect of prostacyclin. Contrib Nephrol. 1983;36:26–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Phillipson EA, Duffin J, Cooper JD. Critical dependence of respiratory rhythmicity on metabolic CO2 load. J Appl Physiol. 1981;50:45–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kotobow T, Gattonini L, Tomlinson TA, Pierce JE. Control of breathing using an extracorporeal membrane lung. Anesthesiology. 1977;46:138–41.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ponte J, Purves MJ. CO2 and venous return and their interaction as stimuli to ventilation in the cat. J Physiol. 1978;274:455–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Sheldon ML, Green JF. Evidence for pulmonary CO2 chemosensitivity: effects on ventilation. J App! Physiol. 1982;52:1192–7.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Wasserman K, Whipp BJ, Casaburi R, Hutsman DJ, Dastagna J, Lugliani R. Regulation of arterial PCO2 during intravenous CO2 loading. J App! Physiol. 1975;38:651–6.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Rodenstein DO, Mercenier C, Stanescu DC. Influence of the respiratory route on the resting breathing pattern in humans. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1985;131:163–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Navarro J, Serrano C, Donna E, Perez GO. Disordered breathing patterns during bicarbonate hemodialysis in COPD. Effect of cuprophane versus polysulfone membranes. ASAIO J. 1992;38:811–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Abu-Hamdan DK, Desai SG, Mahajan SK et al. Hypoxemia during hemodialysis using acetate versus bicarbonate dialysate. Am J Nephrol. 1984;4:248–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Heyrman RM, De Backer WA, Van Waeleghem JP, Willemen MJ, Vermeire PA, De Broe ME. Effect of oxygen administration on the breathing pattern during hemodialysis in man. Eur Resp J. 1989;2:972–6.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Panzetta G, Tessitore N, Valvo E et al. Biofiltration in the treatment of patients with acetate dialysis intolerance. Clin Nephrol. 1986;26:33–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Huang C-C, Lin M-C, Yang C-T, Lan R-S, Tsai Y-H, Tsao TCY. Oxygen, arterial blood gases and ventilation are unchanged during dialysis in patients receiving pressure support ventilation. Resp Med. 1998;92:534–40.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    West JB. Man at extreme altitude. J Appl Physiol. 1982;52: 1393–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Berssenbrugge A, Dempsey J, Iber C, Skatrud J, Wilson P. Mechanisms of hypoxia-induced periodic breathing during sleep in humans. J Physiol (Lond). 1983;343:507–24.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    De Backer WA, Heyrman RM, Wittesaele WM, Van Waeleghem JP, Vermeire PA, De Broe ME. Ventilation and breathing patterns during hemodialysis induced carbon dioxide unloading. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1987;136:406–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Berkenbosch A, Van Beek JHGM, Olievier CN, De Goede J, Quanjer PH. Central respiratory CO2, sensitivity at extreme hypoxapnia. Respir Physiol. 1984;55:95–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Lahiri S, Hsiao C, Zheng R, Mokashi A, Nishino T. Peripheral chemoreceptors in respiratory oscillations. J App! Physiol. 1985;58:1901–8.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Peres-Serrano A, Fernandez-Vega F, Alvarez-Grande J. Hypoxemia during hemodialysis in patients with impairment in pulmonary function. Nephron. 1986;42:14–18.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Camussi G, Segolini G, Rotunno M, Vercellone A. Mechanism involved in acute granulocytopenia in hemodialysis: cell-membrane direct interactions. Int J Artif Organs. 1978;1:123–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Danielson BG, Hallgren R, Benge P. Neutrophil and eosinophil degranulation by hemodialysis membrane. Contrib Nephrol. 1984;37:83–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Hakim RM, Fearon DAT, Lazarus JM, Perzanowski CS. Biocompatibility of dialysis membranes: effect of chronic complement activation. Kidney Int. 1984;26:194–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Greene WH, Casann RS, Mauer M, Quie P. The effect of hemodialysis on neutrophil chemotactic responsiveness. J Lab Clin Med. 1976;88:971–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Henderson LW, Miller ME, Hamilton RW, Norman ME. Hemodialysis leukopenia and polymorph random mobility — a possible correlation. J Lab Clin Med. 1975;85: 191–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Chenoweth PE, Cheung AK, Henderson LW. Anaphylatoxin formation during hemodialysis: effects of different dialyzer membranes. Kidney Int. 1983;24:764–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Lespier-Dexter LE, Guerra C, Ojeda W, MartinezMaldonado M. Granulocyte adherence in uremia and hemodialysis. Nephron. 1979;24:64–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    McGregor RR. Granulocyte adherence changes induced by hemodialysis, endotoxin, epinephrine, and glucocorticoids. Ann Intern Med. 1977;86:35–9.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Hallgren R, Fjellstrom KE, Hakansson L, Venge P. Kinetic studies of phagocytosis. II. The serum-independent uptake of IgG-coated particles by polymorphonuclear leukocytes from uremic patients on regular dialysis treatment. J Lab Clin Med. 1979;94:277–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Hakim RM, Breillatt J, Lazarus JM, Port RK. Complement activation and hypersensitivity reaction to dialysis membranes. N Eng J Med. 1984;311:878–82.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Dinarello CA. The biology of interleukin-1 and its relevance to hemodialysis. Blood Purif. 1983;1:197–224.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Ozdemir O, Arik N, Ozcebe et al. Evidence for the role of dialysis hypoxemia in the pathogenesis of hemodialysisinduced rise in tissue-type plasminogen activator. Thromb Res. 1992;67:697–704.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Lee J, Hakim RM, Fearon DT. Increased expression of the C3b receptor by neutrophils and complement activation during hemodialysis. Clin Exp Immunol. 1984;56: 205–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Conger JD, Hammond WS, Alfrey AC, Contiguglia SR, Stanford RE, Huffer WE. Pulmonary calcification in chronic dialysis patients. Ann Intern Med. 1975;83:330–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Lee HY, Stretton TB, Barnes AM. The lungs in renal failure. Thorax. 1975;30:46–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Schwarz A, Keller F, Seyfert S, Poll W, Molzahn M, Distler A. Carpal tunnel syndrome, a late complication in chronic hemodialysis. Deutsch Med Wochenschr. 1984;109:285–9.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Allieu Y, Asencio G, Mailhe D, Baldet P, Mion C. Carpal tunnel syndrome in chronic hemodialysis patients. Rev Chir Orthop. 1983;69:233–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Bok DU, Pascular L, Herberger C, Sawyer R, Levin NW. Effect of multiple use of dialyzers on intradialytic symptoms. Proc Clin Dial Transplant Forum. 1980;10:92–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Kant KS, Pollak VE, Cathey M, Goetz D, Berlin R. Multiple use of dialyzers: safety and efficacy. Kidney Int. 1981;19: 728–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Man NK, Fournier G, Thireau P, Gaillard JL, Funck Brentano JL. The effect of bicarbonate containing dialysate on chronic hemodialysis patients: a comparative study. Artif Organs. 1982;6:421–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Chanard J, Brunois JP, Melin JP, Lavaud S, Toupance O. Long-term results of dialysis therapy with a highly permeable membrane. Artif Organs. 1982;6:261–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Avram MM. The Long Island College Hospital experience with the decade or longer hemodialysis patient. In: Avram MM, editor. Prevention of Kidney Disease and Long-term Survival. New York: Plenum, 1982:165.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Zidulka A, Despas PJ, Millic-Emili J, Anthonisen NR. Pulmonary function with acute loss of excess lung water by hemodialysis in patients with chronic uremia. Am J Med. 1973;55:134–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Craig DB, Wahba WM, Don HF, Couture JG, Becklake MB. Closing volume and its relationship to gas exchange in seated and supine positions. J Appl Physiol. 1971;31:717–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Robson M, Levin A, Ravid M. Serial measurement of vital capacity in patients on chronic hemodialysis. Nephron. 1977;19:60–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Brigham KL, Bernard G. Pulmonary complications of chronic renal failure. Semin Nephrol. 1981;1:188–97.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Jones JG, Bembridge JL, Sapsford DJ, Turney JH. Continuous measurements of oxygen saturation during haemodialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1992;7:110–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Kuzela DC, Huffer WE, Conger JD, Winter SD, Hammond WS. Soft tissue calcification in chronic dialysis patients. Am J Pathol. 1977;86:403–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Milliner DS, Zinsmeister AR, Lieberman E, Landing B. Soft tissue calcification in pediatric patients with end-stage renal failure. Kidney Int. 1990;38:931–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Jarava C, Marti V, Gurpegui ML, Merello JI, Rdez-Quesada B, Palma A. Pulmonary calcification in chronic dialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1993;8:673–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Berlyne GM, Lee HA, Ralston AJ, Woodlock JA. Pulmonary complications of peritoneal dialysis. Lancet. 1966;2:75–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Goggin MJ, Joekes AM. Pulmonary gas exchange during peritoneal dialysis. Br Med J. 1971;2:247–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Ahluwalia M, Ishikawa S, Gellman M, Shah T, Sekar T, MacDonnel KF. Pulmonary functions during peritoneal dialysis. Clin Nephrol. 1982;18:251–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Prezant DJ. Effect of uremia and its treatment on pulmonary function. Lung. 1990;168:1–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Freedman S, Maberly DJ. Pulmonary gas exchange during dialysis. Br Med J. 1971;3:48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Prezant DJ, Aldrich TK, Karpel JP, Lynn RI. Adaptations in the diaphragm’s in vitro force-length relationship in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1990;141:1342–9.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    O’Brien AA, Power J, O’Brien L, Clancy L, Keogh JA. The effect of peritoneal dialysate on pulmonary function and blood gasses in CAPD patients. Irish J Med Sci. 1990;159: 215–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Taveira Da Silva AM, Davis WB, Winchester JF, Coleman DE, Wei CW. Peritonitis, dialysate infusion and lung function in continuous ambulatory peritoneal (CAPD). Clin Nephrol. 1985;24:79–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Cohn J, Balk RA, Bone RC. Dialysis-induced respiratory acidosis. Chest. 1990;98:1285–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Wanke T, Auinger M, Lahrmann H et al. Diaphragmatic function in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Lung. 1994;172:231–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Siafakas NM, Argyrakopoulos T, Andreopoulos K, Tsoukalas G, Tzanakis N, Bouros D. Respiratory muscle strength during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Eur Respir J. 1995;8:109–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Gomez-Fernandez P, Sanchez Agudo I, Calatravra JM et al. Respiratory muscle weakness in uremic patients under continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Nephron. 1984; 36:219–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Gökbel H, Yeksan M, Dogan E, Gündogan F, Uzun K. Effects of CAPD applications on pulmonary function. Perit Dial Int. 1998;18:344–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Singh S, Dale A, Morgan B, Sahebjami H. Serial studies of pulmonary function in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Chest. 1984;86:874–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Khanna R, Oreopoulos DG. Complications of peritoneal dialysis other than peritonitis. In: Nolph KD, editor. Peritoneal Dialysis. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1985:441.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Scheldewaert R, Bogaerts Y, Pauwels R, Van der Straeten M, Ringoir S, Lameire N. Management of a massive hydrothorax in a CAPD patient: a case report and a review of the literature. Perit Dial Bull. 1982;2:69–72.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Bhatla B, Satalowich R, Khanna R. Low-volume supine peritoneal dialysis in a chronic obstructive airway disease patient. Adv Perit Dial. 1994;10:120–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Leblanc M, Quimet D, Tremblay C, Nolin L. Peritoneal instillation test before CAPD in a case of severe pulmonary disease. Perit Dial Int. 1995;15:384–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Ronco C, Kliger AS, Gianpaolo A, Virga G. Automated peritoneal dialysis: clinical prescription and technology. Perit Dial Int. 2000;20:S70–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Kishimoto T, Tanaka H, Maekawa M et al. Dialysis-induced hypoxaemia. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 19 1938 (Suppl. 2): 25–9.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    De Broe ME. Haemodialysis-induced hypoxaemia. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1994;9(Suppl. 2):173–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Salem M, Ivanovich PT, Ing TS, Daugirdas JT. Adverse effects of dialyzers manifesting during the dialysis session. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1994;9(Suppl. 2):127–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marc E. De Broe
  • Robert L. Lins
  • Wilfried A. De Backer

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations