Dialysis techniques: therapeutic plasma exchange and related techniques

  • W. Samtleben
  • M. J. Lysaght

Abstract

This chapter describes technical and clinical aspects of the therapeutic removal of macromolecular substances from the circulation. Substances targeted by this therapy exceed a molecular weight of about 50 kDa, and are thus too large to be removed by hemodialysis or hemofiltration. The term ‘plasmapheresis’ refers to the removal of plasma from whole blood. Plasma which has been removed must be replaced by a protein solution in order to maintain the patient’s plasma volume and colloid osmotic pressure; hence the term ‘plasma exchange’. In recent years an increasing number of techniques have become clinically available for processing pheresed plasma to remove offending proteins and to allow the useful and beneficial plasma components to be returned to the patient; these approaches are often termed ‘selective plasma exchange’.

Keywords

Cholesterol Vortex Fractionation Cyclophosphamide Diazepam 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Adams WS, Blahd WH, Bassett SH. A method of human plasmapheresis. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1952;80:377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Conway N, Walker JM. Treatment of macroglobulineaemia. Br Med J. 1962;2:1296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Millward BL, Hoeltge GA. The historical development of automated hemapheresis. J Clin Apheresis. 1982;1:25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gloeckner WM, Sieberth HG. Plasma filtration, a new method of plasma exchange. Proc Eur Soc Artif Organs. 1978;4:214.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gurland HJ, Samtleben W, Blumenstein M, Randerson DH, Schmidt B. Clinical application of macromolecular separations. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs. 1981;27:356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gurland HJ, Lysaght MJ, Samtleben W, Schmidt B. Comparative evaluation of filters used in membrane plasmapheresis. Nephron. 1984;36:173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lysaght MJ, Samtleben W, Schmidt B, Gurland HJ. Contemporary technical issues in membrane plasmapheresis: controversies and reconciliation. In: Lysaght MJ, Gurland HJ, editors. Plasma Separation and Plasma Fractionation. Basel: Karger, 1983:315.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Beaudoin G, Jaffrin MY. Plasma filtration in Couette flow membrane devices. Artif Organs. 1989;13:43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nydegger UE, Pflugshaupt R. Quality control of plasma harvested by the flat-sheet filter system Autopheresis-C. Plasma Ther Transfus Technol. 1986;7:57.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fischel RJ, Fischel H, Shatzel A et al. Couette membrane filtration with constant shear stress. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs. 1988;34:375.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lysaght MJ, Schmidt B, Samtleben W, Gurland HJ. Transport considerations in flat sheet micropous membrane plasmapheresis. Plasma Ther Transfus Technol. 1983;4:373.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zydney AL, Colton CK. Continuous flow membrane plasmapheresis: theoretical models for flux and hemolysis prediction. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs. 1982;28:408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lysaght MJ, Schmidt M. Factors governing mass transport in filters for membrane plasmapheresis. In: Nosé Y, Malchesky PS, Smith JW, Krakauer RS, editors. Plasmapheresis. New York: Raven Press, 1983:113.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Solomon BA, Castino F, Lysaght MJ, Colton CK, Friedman LI. Continuous flow membrane filtration of plasma from whole blood. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs. 1978;24:21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Colton CK, Henderson LW, Ford CA, Lysaght MJ. Kinetics of hemofiltration. I: In vitro transport characteristics of a hollow-fiber blood ultrafilter. J Lab Clin Med. 1975; 85:355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nicholls AJ, Platts MM. Anaphylactoid reaction due to haemodialysis, hemofiltration, or membrane plasma separation. Br Med J. 1982;285:1607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Klinkmann H, Schmitt E, Falkenhagen D et al. Reuse of membrane plasma filters. In: Nosé Y, Malchesky PS, Smith JW, Krakauer RS, editors. Plasmapheresis. New York: Raven Press, 1983:107.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Randerson DH, Blumenstein M, Samtleben W, Schmidt B, Gurland HJ. Reuse of membrane plasma separators. In: Nosé Y, Malchesky PS, Smith JW, Krakauer RS, editors. Plasmapheresis. New York: Raven Press, 1983:161.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bosly A, Chatelain B, Doyen C, Moriau M. Plasma exchange in Waldenström ’s disease: efficacy and comparison of continuous centrifugation, discontinuous centrifugation, and filtration. Plasma Ther. 1984;5:319.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Grossman L, Benny WB, Buchanan J, Erickson RR, Buffaloe GW. Clinical evaluation of a flat-plate membrane plasma exchange system. J Clin Apheresis. 1983;1:225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Randels J, Leitman S, Strauss R, Nakayama S, Malchesky P. Questions and answers. J Clin Apheresis. 1992;7:18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gurland HJ, Lysaght MJ, Samtleben W, Schmidt B. A comparison of centrifugal and membrane-based apheresis formats. Int J Artif Organs. 1984;7:35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Schinzel H, Berghoff K, Beuermann I, Blank R, Weileman LS. Anticoagulation with low molecular weight heparin (Fragmin) during plasmapheresis. First experience. Ann Hematol. 1994:68(Suppl. II):A72.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sutton DMC, Cardella CJ, Uldall PR, DeVeber GA. Complications of intensive plasma exchange. Plasma Ther. 1981; 2:19.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schreiber GB, Busch MP, Kleinman SH, Korelitz JJ, for the retrovirus epidemiology donor study. The risk of transfusiontransmitted viral infections. N Engl J Med. 1996;334: 1685–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Roberts CG, Schindhelm K, Smeby LC, Farrell PC. Kinetic analysis of plasma separation: Use of an animal model. In: Lysaght MJ, Gurland HJ, editors. Plasma Separation and Plasma Fractionation. Basel: Karger, 1983:25.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Samtleben W, Randerson DH, Blumenstein M, Habersetzer R, Schmidt B, Gurland HJ. Membrane plasma exchange: principles and application techniques. J Clin Apheresis. 1984; 2:163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Frank MM, Hamburger MI, Lawley TJ, Kimberly RP, Plotz PH. Defective reticuloendothelial system Fc-receptor function in systemic lupus erythematosus. N Engl J Med. 1979;300:518.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lockwood CM, Worlledge S, Nicholas A, Cotton C, Peters DK. Reversal of impaired splenic function in patients with nephritis or vasculitis (or both) by plasma exchange. N Engl J Med. 1979;300:524.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Samtleben W, Schmidt B, Bosch T, Gurland HJ. Are immune complex assays an appropriate tool for quantification of plasma exchange? Plasma Ther Transfus Technol. 1985;6:523.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Schroeder JO, Euler HH, Loeffler H. Synchronization of plasmapheresis and pulse cyclophosphamide in severe systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Intern Med. 1987;107:344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Euler HH, Krey U, Schroeder O, Loeffler H. Membrane plasmapheresis technique in rats. Confirmation of antibody rebound. J Immunol Methods. 1985;84:313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Aufeuvre JP, Morin-Hertel F, Cohen-Solal M, Lefloch A, Baudelot J. Hazards of plasma exchange. A nationwide study of 3431 exchanges in 592 patients. In: Sieberth HG, editor. Plasma Exchange. Stuttgart: Schattauer, 1981:149.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Das PC, Smit Sibinga CT. Complications of therapeutic plasma exchange. Lancet. 1983;2:455.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Borberg H. Problems of plasma exchange therapy. In: Gurland HJ, Heinze V, Lee HA, editors. Therapeutic Plasma Exchange. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1981:191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bussel A, Sitthy X, Reviron J. Aspects technologiques et complications des exchange plasmatique (Technical aspects and complications of plasma exchange). Rev Fr Transfus Immunohematol. 1982;25:547.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fabre M, Andreu G, Mannoni P. Some biological modifications and clinical hazards observed during plasma exchange. In: Sieberth HG, editor. Plasma Exchange. Stuttgart: Schattauer, 1981:143.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gajdos P, Pourrat J, Elkharrat D, Terre C. National register for plasma exchange — The French Society for Hemapheresis. Results for 1985. Plasma Ther Transfus Technol. 1987;8:137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Samtleben W, Hillebrand G, Krumme D, Gurland HJ. Membrane plasma separation: clinical experience with more than 120 plasama exchanges. In: Sieberth HG, editor. Plasma Exchange. Stuttgart: Schattauer, 1981:175.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Tindall RSA, Walker JE, Ehle AL, Near L, Rolins J, Becker D. Plasmapheresis in multiple sclerosis: prospective trial of pheresis and immunosuppression versus immunosuppression alone. Neurology. 1982;32:739.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Korach J-M, Guillevin L, Petitpas D, Berger P, Chillet P, and the French Registry Study Group. Apheresis registry in France: indications, techniques, and complications. Therapeutic Apheresis. 2000;4:207–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Editorial. Hazards of apheresis. Lancet. 1982;2:1025.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Huestis DW. Mortality in therapeutic hemapheresis. Lancet. 1983;1:1043.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ring J, Messmer K. Incidence and severity of anaphylactoid reactions to colloid volume substitutes. Lancet. 1977;1:466.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Evans RT, MacDonald R, Robinson EAE. Suxamethonium apnoea associated with plasmapheresis. Anaesthesia. 1980; 35:198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Jones JV, Parker WA, Sketris IS. The effect of plasmapheresis on therapeutic drugs. Dial Transplant. 1985;14:225.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sketris IS, Parker WA, Jones JV. Plasmapheresis: its effect on toxic agents and drugs. Plasma Ther Transfus Technol. 1984;5:305.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kaplan AA. A Practical Guide to Therapeutic Plasma Exchange. Abingdon, UK: Blackwell Science, 1999.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Seyffart G. Drug Dosage in Renal Insufficiency. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Sakellarious G. Plasmapheresis as a therapy in specific forms of acute renal failure. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1994; 9(Suppl. 4):210.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Samtleben W, Mistry-Burchardi N, Hartmann B, Lennertz A, Bosch T. Therapeutic plasma exchange in the intensive care setting. Therapeutic Apheresis. 2001;5:351–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Schmidt B, Lysaght MJ, Samtleben W, Gurland HJ. Plasmapheresis without pumps for therapeutic and donor purposes. In: Sieberth HG, editor. Plasma Exchange. Stuttgart: Schattauer, 1981:188.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Samtleben W, Lysaght MJ, Schmidt B, Gurland HJ. A very simple technique for spontaneous membrane plasma exchange without arterial access. Blood Purif. 1983;1:90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Landini S, Coli U, Lucatello S et al. Spontaneous plasma exchange by gravity. Int J Artif Organs. 1984;7:137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Samtleben W, Lysaght MJ, Banthien F, Hillebrand G, Gurland HJ: Simultaneous combined hemodialysis and membrane plasmapheresis. In: Lysaght MJ, Gurland HJ, editors Plasma Separation and Plasma Fractionation. Basel: Karger, 1913.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Scheiner E, Reich L, Isaacs M et al. Simultaneous hemodialysis and plasrnapheresis. Ten years experience. Kidney Int. 1983;23:160 (abstract).Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Gross Baillod RA, Sweny P, Pearson RM. Letter. Plasma Ther. 1981;2:255.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Bhowrmk D, Jain PK, Masih JA et al. Tandem plasmapheresis and hemodialysis. Therapeutic Apheresis. 2001;5: 439–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Lysaght MJ, Samtleben W, Schmidt B, Gurland HJ. Closedloop plasmapheresis. In: MacPhersons JK, Kasprisin DO, editors. Therapeutic Hemapheresis. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1985;I:149.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Samtleben W, Schindhelm K. Therapeutic plasmapheresis. Editorial. Biomed Pharmacother. 1986;40:281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Staubach K-H, Rosenfeldt J-A, Veit O, Bruch H-P. Extracorporeal adsorption of endotoxin. Therapeutic Apheresis. 1991;1:67–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Zimmermann M, Busch K, Kuhn S, Zeppezauer M. Endotoxin adsorbent based on immobilized human serum albumin. Clin Chem Lab Med. 1999;37:373–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Agishi T, Kaneko I, Hasou Y et al. Double filtration plasmapheresis. ASAIO Trans. 1980;26:406.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Lysaght MJ, Samtleben W, Schmidt B, Gurland HJ. Technical assessment of membrane plasmapheresis in the treatment of a patient with IgM paraproteinemia. Clin Hemorrheol. 1985;5:27.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Samtleben W, Schmidt B, Blumenstein M, Gurland HJ. Current status of membrane plasma separation and plasma filtration techniques. Int J Artif Organs. 1985; 8(Suppl. 2):33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Busnach G, Dal-Col B, Capelleri A, Perrino ML, Bruncati C, Minetti L. Different cascade filtration operating modalities in clinical use. Int J Artif Organs. 1986;11:493.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lysaght MJ, Samtleben W, Schmidt B, Gurland HJ. Contemporary technical issues in membrane plasmapheresis: controversies ans reconciliation. In: Lysaght MJ, Gurland HJ, editors. Plasma Separation and Plasma Fractionation. Basel: Karger, 1983:315.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kochinke F, von Baeyer H, Schwaner I, Schwerdtfeger R. Comparison of plasmafractionation filters and filtration techniques in the clinical practice of LDL-apheresis. ASAIO Trans. 1987;32:389.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Valbonesi M, Lercari S, Angelini G et al. Cascade filtration with reverse rinse of the secondary filter. J Clin Apheresis. 1987;3:240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Bosch T, Gurland HJ. Overview: techniques and indications of LDL-apheresis. Biomat Artif Cells Immobil Biotechnol. 1991;19:1.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Legallis C, Jaffrin MY. A process enhancing selectivity and limiting plugging in plasmafractionation for ApoB removal. Int J Artif Organs. 1993;16:108.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Sueoka A. Present status of apheresis technologies: Part 2. Membrane plasma fractionator. Therapeutic Apheresis. 1997; 1:135–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Tagawa Y, Yuki N, Hirata K. Ability to remove immunoglobulins and antiganglioside antibodies by double filtration plasmapheresis in Guillain-Barré syndrome: is it equivalent to plasma exchange? Therapeutic Apheresis. 1997; 1:336–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Smith JW, Abe Y, Katsume C, Malchesky PS, Nosé Y. Membrane plasmapheresis with plasma cryofiltration: characterization of cryogel and clinical response. Life Support Syst. 1983 1 (Suppl. 1):439–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Siami FS, Siami GA. Cryofiltration apheresis in the treatment of cryoprecipitate induced diseases. Therapeutic Apheresis. 1997;1:58–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kawamura A. Cryofiltration. In: Agishi T, editor. Plasma Purification. Tokyo: Igaku-Shoin, 1996:33–9.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Siami GA, Siami FS. Current topics on cryofiltration technologies. Therapeutic Apheresis. 2001;5:283–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Horiuchi T, Emura M, Usami M, Malchesky P, Nosé Y. Membrane plasma filtration (MPF). Effect of temperature on heparin and macromolecule sieving. Trans Am Soc Artif Organs. 1985;31:692–7.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Klingel R, Fassbender C, Fassbender T, Erdtracht B, Berroutschot J. Rheopheresis: rheological, functional, and structural aspects. Therapeutic Apheresis. 2000;4:348–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Fuchs C, Windisch W, Wieland H et al. Selective continuous extracorporeal elimination of low-density lipoproteins from plasma by heparin precipitation without cations. In: Lysaght MJ, Gurland HJ, editors. Plasma Separation and Plasma Fractionation. Basel: Karger, 1983:272.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Seidel D, Armstrong VW, Schuff-Werner P and the HELP study group. The HELP-LDL-apheresis multicentre study, an angiographically assessed trial on the role of LDLapheresis in the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. I. Evaluation of safety and cholesterol-lowering effects during the first 12 months. Eur J Clin Invest. 1991; 21:375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Eisenhauer T, Armstrong VW, Wieland H, Fuchs C, Scheler F, Seidel D. Selective removal of low density lipoprotein (LDL) by precipitation at low pH: first clinical application of the HELP system. Klin Wochenschr. 1987;65:161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Armstrong VW, Schleef J, Thiery J et al. Effect of the HELP-LDL-apheresis on serum concentrations of human lipoprotein (a): kinetic analysis of the post-treatment return to baseline levels. Eur Clin J Invest. 1989;19:235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Schuff-Werner P, Schütz E, Seyde WC et al. Improved haemorheology associated with a reduction in plasma fibrinogen and LDL in patients treated by heparin-induced extracorporeal LDL precipitation (HELP). Eur J Clin Invest. 1989;19:30–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Samtleben W, Boos KS, Fraunberger P et al. HELP. in Gram-negative, refractory septic shock: first clinical experiences. Jpn J Apheresis. 1997;16:91–6.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Terman DS, Stewart I, Robinetti J, Carr R, Harbeck R. Specific removal of DNA antibodies in vivo with an extracorporeal immunosorbent. Clin Exp Immunol. 1976;24:231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Takamori M, Maruta T. Immunoadsorption in myasthenia gravis based on specific ligands mimicking the immunogenic sites of the acetylcholine receptor. Therapeutic Apheresis. 2001;5:340–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Richter WO, Jahn P, Jung N, Nielebock E, Tachezy H. Fibrinogen adsorption in the diabetic foot syndrome and peripheral arterial occlusive disease: first clinical experience. Therapeutic Apheresis. 2001;5:335–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Lupien PJ, Moorjani S, Awad J. A new approach to the management of familial hypercholesterolemia: removal of plasma cholesterol based on the principle of affinity chromatography. Lancet. 1976;1:1261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Yokoyama S, Hayashi R, Kikkawa T et al. Specific sorbent of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins of plasmapheresis. Characterization and experimental use in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Arteriosclerosis. 1984:4:276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Ikonomov V, Samtleben W, Schmidt B, Blumenstein M, Gurland HJ. Adsorption profile of commercially available adsorbents: an in vitro evaluation. Int J Artif Organs. 1992;15:312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Bansal SC, Bansal BR, Thomas HL et al. Ex vivo removal of serum IgG in a patient with colon carcinoma: some biochemical, immunological and histological observations. Cancer. 1978;42:1–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Furst D, Felson D, Thoren G, Gendreau RM, For the Prosorba Trial Investigators: Immunoadsorption for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: final results of a randomised trial. Therapeutic Apheresis. 2000;4:363–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Samtleben W, Schmidt B, Gurland HJ. Ex vivo and in vivo protein A perfusion: background, basic investigations, and first clinical experiences. Blood Purif. 1987;5:179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Freiburghaus C, Ohlson S, Nilsson IM. Extracorporeal systems for adsorption of antibodies in hemophilia A and B. Methods Enzymol. 1988;137:458–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Stoffel W, Borberg H, Greve V. Application of specific extracorporeal removal of low density lipoprotein in familial hypercholesterolaemia. Lancet. 1981;2:1005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    du Moulin A, Mueller-Derlich J, Bieber F et al. Antibodybased immunoadsorption as a therapeutic means. Blood Purif. 1993;11:145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Pokrovsky SN, Adamova IY, Afanasieva OY, Benevolenskaya GF. Immunosorbent for selective removal of lipoprotein (a) from human plasma: in vitro study. Artif Organs. 1991;15:136–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Ullrich H, Lackner KJ, Schmitz G. Lipoprotein (a) apheresis in severe coronary heart disease: an immunosorption method. Artif Organs. 1998;22:135–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Parhofer KG, Geiss HC, Schwandt P. Efficacy of different low-density lipoprotein apheresis methods. Therapeutic Apheresis. 2000;4:382–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Yokoyama S, Hayashi R, Satani M, Yamamoto A. Selective removal of low density lipoprotein by plasmapheresis in familial hypercholesterolemia. Arteriosclerosis. 1985;5: 613–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Bosch T, Schmidt B, Kleophas W et al. LDL hemoperfusion — a new procedure for LDL apheresis: first clinical application of an LDL adsorber compatible with human whole blood. Artif Organs. 1997;21:977–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Bambauer R, Schiel R, Latza R, Klinkmann J, Schneidewind JM. LDL apheresis in clinical practice: longterm treatment of severe hyperlipidemia. Therapeutic Apheresis. 1997;1:49–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Bosch T, Wendler T, Jaeger BR, Samtleben W. Improvement of hemorheology by DALI apheresis: acute effects on plasma viscosity and erythrocyte aggregation in hypercholesterolemic patients. Therapeutic Apheresis. 2001;5: 372–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Boos K-S, Bengsch S, Samtleben W, Seidel D. Elimination of LPS or/and TNFcα from human plasma by adsorptionapheresis. In: Faist E, editor. The Immune Consequences of Trauma, Shock and Sepsis. Mechanisms and Therapeutic Approaches. Bologna: Monduzzi Editore, 1997: 799–803.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Kodama M, Hanasawa K, Tani T. Blood purification for critical care medicine: endotoxin adsorption. Therapeutic Apheresis. 1997;1:224–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Sueoka A. Present status of apheresis technologies: Part 3. Adsorbent. Therapeutic Apheresis. 1997;1:271–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Ullrich H, Jakob W, Froehlich D et al. A new endotoxin adsorber: first clinical application. Therapeutic Apheresis. 2001;5:326–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Matic G, Bosch T, Ramlow W. Background and indications for protein A-based extracorporeal immunoadsorption. Therapeutic Apheresis. 2001;5:394–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Matic G, Hofmann ED, Winkler R et al. Removal of immunoglobulins by protein A versus an antihuman immunoglobulins G-based system: evaluation of 602 sessions of extracorporeal immunoadsorption. Artif Organs. 2000;24: 103–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Braun N, Risler T. Immunoadsorption as a tool for the immunomodulation of the humoral and cellular immune system in autoimmune disease. Therapeutic Apheresis. 1999; 3:240–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Jaeger BR, Goehring P, Schirmer J et al. Consistent lowering of clotting factors for the treatment of acute cardiovascular syndromes and hypercoagulopatibility: a different pathophysiological approach. Therapeutic Apheresis. 2001;5: 252–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Heiniger K, Toyka KV, Gaczkowski A, Hartung H-P, Borberg H, Grabensee B. Selective removal of pathogenic factors in neurologic diseases. J Clin Apher. 1986;3:252.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Samtleben W, Blumenstein M, Bosch T, Lysaght MJ, Schmidt B. Plasmatherapy: a 15-year retrospective. Artif Organs. 1996;20:408–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Ward RA, Schmidt B, Hullin J, Hillebrand GF, Samtleben W. A comparison of on-line hemofiltration and high-flux hemodialysis: a prospective clinical study. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2000;11:2344–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Furuyoshi S, Nakatani M, Taman J, Kutsuki H, Takata S, Tani N. New adsorption column (Lixelle) to eliminate beta2-microglobulin for direct hemoperfusion. Therapeutic Apheresis. 1998;2:13–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Ronco C, Brendolan A, Winchester JF et al. First clinical experience with an adjunctive hemoperfusion device designed specifically to remove ß32-microglobulin in hemodialysis. Contrib Nephrol. 2001;133:166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Samtleben
  • M. J. Lysaght

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations