Water treatment for contemporary hemodialysis

  • Gianni Cappelli
  • Paola Inguaggiato


Chronic hemodialysis treatment became an accepted mode of therapy in the 1960s, and since then the use of inadequately purified water was recognized as being responsible for many documented patients’ injuries and deaths (Table 1) (1–6). It is estimated that many more incidences go unreported since, unless a patient exhibits an acute or subacute reaction, chronic side-effects are usually related to uremia or to the treatment itself. Water represents more than 95% of dialysate, and a dialysis patient is exposed to a mean of 300–400 L of water a week, in contrast to a normal person ingesting 14 L/week. In healthy individuals gastrointestinal mucosa represents an active membrane which regulates transport of a potential toxin into the blood stream and, once entered, contaminants have ready means of excretion.


Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Reverse Osmosis Granular Activate Carbon Dialysis Fluid Water Treatment System 
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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gianni Cappelli
  • Paola Inguaggiato

There are no affiliations available

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