The welfare of laboratory mice

  • Vera Baumans
Part of the Animal Welfare book series (AWNS, volume 2)


Animal Welfare Estrous Cycle Inbred Strain Environmental Enrichment Laboratory Mouse 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Barclay RJ, Herbert WJ, Poole TB. The disturbance index: a behavioural method of assessing the severity of common laboratory procedures on rodents. Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, Potters Bar, UK 1988Google Scholar
  2. Baumans V. Environmental enrichment: practical applications. In Animal Alternatives, Welfare and Ethics. Van Zutphen LFM, Balls M eds, Elsevier BV, The Netherlands 1997; 187-191Google Scholar
  3. Baumans V. The laboratory mouse. In UFAW Handbook on the Care and Management of Laboratory Animals, Vol 1, 7th edition. Poole T ed, Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford 1999; 282-312Google Scholar
  4. Baumans V. Environmental enrichment: a right of rodents! In Progress in the Reduction, Refinement and Replacement of Animal Experimentation. Balls M, Van Zeller A-M, Halder M eds, Elsevier, Amsterdam 2000; 1251-1255Google Scholar
  5. Baumans V, Brain PE, Brugère H, Clausing P, Jeneskog T, Perretta G. Report of the FELASA Working Group on Pain and Distress. Lab Anim 1994; 28:97-112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baumans V, Bouwknecht JA, Boere HAG, Kramer K, Van Lith HA, Van de Weerd HA, Van Herck H. Intra abdominal transmitter implantation in mice: effects on behaviour and body weight. Anim Welf 2001a; 10:291-302Google Scholar
  7. Baumans V, Remie R, Hackbarth HJ, Timmerman A. Experimental procedures. In Principles of Laboratory Animal Science. Van Zutphen LFM, Baumans V, Beynen AC eds, Elsevier, Amsterdam 2001b; 299-318Google Scholar
  8. Baumans V, Schlingmann F, Vonck M, Van Lith HA. Individually ventilated cages: beneficial for mice and men? Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci 2002; 41:13-19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Blom HJM. Evaluation of housing conditions for laboratory mice and rats. The use of preference tests for studying choice behaviour. Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands 1993Google Scholar
  10. Blom HJM, Van Vorstenbosch CJAVH, Baumans V, Hoogervorst MJC, Beijnen AC, Van Zutphen LFM. Description and validation of a preference test system to evaluate housing conditions for laboratory mice. Appl Anim Behav Sci 1992; 35:67-82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Blom HJM, Van Tintelen G, Van Vorstenbosch CJAHV, Baumans V, Beynen AC. Preferences of mice and rats for type of bedding material. Lab Anim 1996; 30:234-244CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Boot R, Koopman JP, Kunstýr I. Microbiological standardization. In Principles of Laboratory Animal Science. Van Zutphen LFM, Baumans V, Beynen AC eds, Elsevier, Amsterdam 2001; 143-165Google Scholar
  13. Brain PF. What does individual housing mean to a mouse. Life Sci 1975; 16:187-200CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Brain PF. Stress in agonistic contexts in rodents. In Social Stress in Domestic Animals. Zayan R, Dantzer R eds, Kluwer, Dordrecht 1990; 73-85Google Scholar
  15. Broom DM, Johnson KG. Stress and Animal Welfare. Chapman & Hall, London 1993Google Scholar
  16. Busser J, Zweep A, Van Oortmerssen GA. The Genetics of Behavior. Van Abeelen JHF ed, American Elsevier publishing company, New York 1974Google Scholar
  17. BVA/FRAME/RSPCA/UFAW joint working group on Refinement, Removal of blood from laboratory mammals and birds. Lab Anim 1993;27: 1-22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Clough G. Environmental factors in relation to the comfort and well-being of laboratory rats and mice. In: Proceedings of UFAW/LASA Joint Symposium, Standards in Laboratory Animal Management, Part 1. UFAW, Potters Bar, UK 1984; 7-24Google Scholar
  19. Council of Europe. European Convention for the Protection of Vertebrate Animals used for Experimental and other Scientific Purposes (ETS 123). Council of Europe, Strasbourg 1986Google Scholar
  20. Council of Europe. Resolution on the accommodation and care of laboratory animals. Council of Europe, Strasbourg 1997Google Scholar
  21. Cunliffe-Beamer TL, Les EP. The laboratory mouse. In UFAW Handbook on the Care and Management of Laboratory Animals, Vol. 1, 6th edition. Poole T ed, Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford 1987; 2785-308Google Scholar
  22. Dawkins MS. From an animal's point of view: Motivation, fitness and animal welfare. Behav Brain Sci 1990; 13:1-9Google Scholar
  23. Dawkins MS. Using behavior to assess animal welfare. Abstract UFAW Symposium Science in the Service of Animal Welfare, April 2003, Edinburgh, UK 2003Google Scholar
  24. Dennis Jr MB. Welfare issues of genetically modified animals, ILAR J 2002; 43(2):100-109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. EC Working Party report on euthanasia of experimental animals. Recommendations for euthanasia of experimental animals Part 1. Lab Anim 1996; 30:293-316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. EC Working Party report on euthanasia of experimental animals. Recommendations for euthanasia of experimental animals Part 2. Lab Anim 1997: 31:1-32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Eskola S, Lauhikari M, Voipio H-M, Laitinen M, Nevalainen T. Environmental enrichment may alter the number of rats needed to achieve statistical significance. Scand J Lab Anim Sci 1999; 26(3):134-144Google Scholar
  28. European Council Directive. Directive on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the member states regarding the Protection of vertebrate animals used for Experimental and other Scientific Purposes (86/609/EEC) 1986Google Scholar
  29. Fox JG, Cohen BJ, Loew FM. Laboratory Animal Medicine. Academic Press Inc, New York, 1984Google Scholar
  30. Haataja H, Voipio HM, Nevalainen A, Jantunen MJ, Nevalainen T. Deciduous wood chips as bedding material: Estimation of dust yield, water absorption and micro-biological comparison. Scand J Lab Anim Sci 1989; 16(3):105-111Google Scholar
  31. Haberham ZL, Vijn PCM, Van den Brom WE, Hellebrekers LJ. The electro-encephalographic activity observed after decapitation in rats probably does not indicate consciousness. Thesis Utrecht University 2000, 149-160Google Scholar
  32. Hackbarth H, Küppers N, Bohnet W. Euthanasia of rats with carbon-dioxide - Animal welfare aspects. Lab Anim 2000; 34(1):91-96CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Harris RBS, Zhou J, Mitchell T, Hebert S, Ryan DH. Rats fed only during the light period are resistant to stress-induced weight loss. Physiol Behav 2002; 76:543-550CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Hurst JL. Introduction to rodents. In UFAW Handbook on the Care and Management of Laboratory Animals Vol 1, 7th edition. Poole T ed, Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford 1999; 262-273Google Scholar
  35. Jennings M, Batchelor GR, Brain PF, Dick A, Elliot H, Francis RJ, Hubrecht RC, Hurst JL, Morton DB, Peters AG, Raymond R, Sales GD, Sherwin CM, West C. Refining rodent husbandry: the mouse. Report of the Rodent Refinement Working Party. Lab Anim 1998; 32 (3):233-259CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Kramer K, Van Acker SABE, Voss HP, Grimbergen JA, Vijgh WJF, Bast A. Use of telemetry to record ECG and heart rate in freely moving mice. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 1993; 30 (4):209-215CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Mattson MP, Duan W, Lee J, Guo Z. Suppression of brain aging and neurodegenerative disorders by dietary restriction and environmental enrichment: molecular mechanisms. Mech Ageing Dev 2001; 122:757-758CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Meijer MK, Kramer K, Remie R, Spruijt BM, Van Zutphen LFM, Baumans V. Stress response to routine experimental procedures in mice: influence of the environment. SubmittedGoogle Scholar
  39. Mertens C, Rulicke T. Score sheets for the monitoring of transgenic mice. Anim Welf 1999; 8:433-438Google Scholar
  40. Mohammed AH, Zhu SW, Darmopil S, Hjerling-Leffler J, Ernfors P, Winblad B, Diamond MC, Eriksson PS, Bogdanovich N. Environmental enrichment and the brain. In: Progress in Brain Research Vol 138. Hofman MA, Boer GJ, Holtmaat AJGD, Van Someren EJW, Verhaagen J, Swaab DF eds, Elsevier Science BV 2002Google Scholar
  41. National Research Council. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, 7th edition. National Academy Press, Washington, 1996; 22Google Scholar
  42. Nevison CM, Hurst JL, Barnard CJ. Strain-specific effects of cage enrichment in male laboratory mice (Mus musculus). Anim Welf 1999; 8:361-379Google Scholar
  43. Newberry, RC. Environmental enrichment: increasing the biological relevance of captive environments. Appl Anim Behav Sci 1995; 44:229-243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. O'Donoghue PN ed. International workshop on the accommodation of laboratory animals in accordance with animal welfare requirements. Bundesministerium für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Forsten, Bonn, Germany 1993Google Scholar
  45. Olsson A, Dahlborn K. Improving housing conditions for laboratory mice: a review of ‘environmental enrichment’. Lab Anim 2002; 36:243-270CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Pekow CA, Baumans V. Common nonsurgical techniques and procedures. In Handbook of Laboratory Animal Science, 2nd edition, Vol 1. Hau J, van Hoosier GL eds, CRC Press 2002; 351-390Google Scholar
  47. Poole TB. Welfare considerations with regard to transgenic animals. Anim Welf 1995; 4:81-86Google Scholar
  48. Poole TB. Meeting a mammal's psychological needs: basic principles. In Second Nature, Environmental Enrichment for Captive Animals. Shepherdson DJ, Mellen JD, Hutchins M eds, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington 1998; 83-94Google Scholar
  49. Pugh TD, Klopp RG, Weindruch R. Controlling caloric consumption: protocols for rodents and rhesus monkeys. Neurobiol Aging 1999; 20:157-165CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Roughan JV, Flecknell PA. Effects of surgery and analgesic administration on spontaneous behavior in singly housed rats. Res Vet Sci 2000; 69:283-288CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Sales GD, Milligan SR, Khirnykh K. Sources of sound in the laboratory animal environment: a survey of the sounds produced by procedures and equipment. Anim Welf 1999; 8:97-115Google Scholar
  52. Schlingmann F, Van de Weerd HA, Baumans V, Remie R, Van Zutphen LFM. A balance device for the analysis of behavioural patterns of the mouse. Anim Welf 1998; 7:177-188Google Scholar
  53. Serrano LJ. Carbon dioxide and ammonia in mouse cages: effect of cage covers, population and activity. Lab Anim 1971; 21:75-85Google Scholar
  54. Sherwin CM. Frustration in laboratory mice. Sci Cent for Anim Welf Newsl 2000; 22(3):7-12Google Scholar
  55. Sherwin CM. Comfortable quarters for mice in research institutions. In Comfortable Quarters for Laboratory Animals, 9th edition. Reinhardt V, Reinhardt A eds, Animal Welfare Institute, Washington 2002; 6-17; //
  56. Sherwin CM, Nicol CJ. Behavioural demand functions of caged laboratory mice for additional space. Anim Behav 1997; 53:67-74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Spalding JF, Holland IM, Tietjen GL. Influence of the visible color spectrum on activity in mice. Lab Anim Care 1969; 19(2):209-213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Spruijt BM, Van den Bosch R, Pijlman TA. A concept of welfare based on reward evaluating mechanisms in the brain: anticipatory behavior as indicator for the state of reward systems. Appl Anim Behav Sci 2001; 72(2):145-171CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. The Jackson Laboratory., 2003
  60. Van de Weerd HA. Environmental enrichment for laboratory mice: preferences and consequences. PhD Thesis, Utrecht University, the Netherlands 1996Google Scholar
  61. Van de Weerd HA, Baumans V. Environmental enrichment in rodents. In Environmental Enrichment Information Resources for Laboratory Animals, AWIC Resource Series No 2 1995; 145-149Google Scholar
  62. Van de Weerd HA, Van den Broek FAR, Beynen AC. Removal of vibrissae in male does not influence social dominance. Behav Processes 1992; 27:205-208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Van de Weerd HA, Baumans V, Koolhaas JM, Van Zutphen LFM. Strain specific behavioural response to environmental enrichment in the mouse. J Exp Anim Sci 1994; 36:117-127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Van de Weerd, HA, Van Loo PLP, Van Zutphen LFM, Koolhaas JM, Baumans V. Preferences for nesting material as environmental enrichment for laboratory mice. Lab Anim 1997a; 31:133-143CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Van de Weerd, HA, Van Loo PP, Van Zutphen LFM, Koolhaas JM, Baumans V. Nesting material as environmental enrichment has no adverse effects on behavior and physiology of laboratory mice. Physiol Behav 1997b; 62:1019-1028CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Van de Weerd HA, Van Loo PLP, Van Zutphen LFM, Koolhaas JM, Baumans V. Strength of preference for nesting material as environmental enrichment for laboratory mice. Appl Anim Behav Sci 1998; 55:369-382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Van de Weerd HA, Aarsen EL, Mulder A, Kruitwagen CLJJ, Hendriksen CFM, Baumans V. Effects of environmental enrichment for mice: variation in experimental results. J Appl Anim Welf Sci 2002: 5:87-109CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Van den Broek FAR, Omtzigt CM, Beynen AC. Whisker trimming behavior in A2G mice is not prevented by offering means of withdrawal from it. Lab Anim 1993; 27:270-272CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Van der Meer M, Baumans V, Olivier B, Van Zutphen LFM. Impact of transgenic procedures on behavioral and physiological responses in post weaning mice. Physiol Behav 2001a; 73:133-143CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Van der Meer M, Rolls A, Baumans V, Olivier B, Van Zutphen LFM. Use of score sheets for welfare assessment of transgenic mice. Lab Anim 2001b; 35:379-389CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Van Dijk JE, Van Herck H, Bosland MC. Diseases in laboratory animals. In Principles in Laboratory Animal Science. Van Zutphen LFM, Baumans V, Beynen AC eds, Elsevier, Amsterdam 2001; 173-195Google Scholar
  72. Van Herck H, Baumans V, de Boer SF. Assessment of discomfort in Laboratory Animals. In Auto-immune Disease Models, a Guidebook. Cohen J, Miller A eds, Academic Press, US 1994; 303-320Google Scholar
  73. Van Herck H, Baumans V, Brandt CJWM, Hesp APM, Sturkenboom JH, Van Lith HA, Van Tintelen G, Beynen AC. Orbital sinus blood sampling in rats as performed by different animal technicians: the influence of technique and expertise. Lab Anim 1998; 32:377-382CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Van Loo PLP, Kruitwagen CLJJ, Van Zutphen LFM, Koolhaas JM, Baumans V. Modulation of aggression in male mice: influence of cage cleaning regime and scent marks. Anim Welf 2000; 9:281-295Google Scholar
  75. Van Loo PLP, De Groot AC, Van Zutphen LFM, Baumans V. Do male mice prefer or avoid each other's company? Influence of hierarchy, kinship and familiarity. J Appl Anim Welf Sci 2001a; 4:91-103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Van Loo PLP, Mol JA, Koolhaas JM, Van Zutphen LFM, Baumans V. Modulation of aggression in male mice: influence of group size and cage size. Physiol Behav 2001b; 72:675-683CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Van Loo PLP, Van der Meer E, Kruitwagen CLJJ, Koolhaas JM, Van Zutphen LFM, Baumans V. Strain-Specific aggressive behavior of male mice submitted to different husbandry procedures. Aggr Behav 2003; 29:69-80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Van Oortmerssen GA. Biological significance, genetics and evolutionary origin of variability in behavior within and between inbred strains of mice. Behavior 1971: 38:1-92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Van Reenen CG, Blokhuis HJ. Investigating welfare of dairy calves involved in genetic modification: problems and perspectives. Livest Product Sci 1993; 36:81-90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Van Zutphen LFM, Hedrich HJ, Van Lith HA, Prins JB. Genetic standardization. In Principles of Laboratory Animal Science. Van Zutphen LFM, Baumans V, Beynen AC eds, Elsevier, Amsterdam 2001; 129-147Google Scholar
  81. Working Group on Refinement (BVA/FRAME/RSPCA/UFAW joint). Removal of blood from laboratory mammals and birds. Lab Anim 1993; 27:1-22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Wuerbel H, Stauffacher M, Von Holst D. Stereotypies in laboratory mice: quantitative and qualitative description of the ontogeny of ‘wire-gnawing’ and ‘jumping’ in ICR and ICR-nu mice. Ethology 1996; 102:371-385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Yamauchi C, Fujita S, Obara T, Ueda T. Effect of room temperature on reproduction body and organ weights, food and water intakes and hematology in mice. Exp Anim 1983; 32:1-12Google Scholar
  84. Young L. Mousetales. Coronet Books, Hodder & Stoughton Ltd, UK 1987Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vera Baumans
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Laboratory Animal ScienceUniversity of UtrechtThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations