This is really a huge subject, only a short introduction will be given. Essential quantities and notions will be introduced and explained. We will be mainly concerned with paramagnetism (induced magnetic moment is directed along the applied magnetic field), diamagnetism (opposite to the field) and also ferro- and antiferromagnetism where spontaneous magnetisation (without any applied field) and other interesting properties are observed. We shall start by recalling several important points from classical electrodynamics and quantum mechanics related to magnetism (see e.g. [55, 14]).
KeywordsMagnetic Field Partition Function Applied Magnetic Field Free Energy Density Spontaneous Magnetisation
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