The educational goal of fostering students’ thinking has been the focus of numerous books and research articles (e.g., Adey & Shayer, 1994; Brown, & Campione, 1990; Bruer,1993; Burden & Williams, 1998; Carmichael, 1981; Chance, 1986; De Bono, 1985; Feurstein, Rand & Rynders, 1988; Greeno & Goldman, 1998; Halpern, 1992; Lipman, 1985; Nickerson, Perkins & Smith, 1985; Perkins, 1992; Paul, Binker, Martin, & Adamson, 1989; Resnick, 1987; Resnick & Klopfer, 1989; Schoenfeld, 1989; 1992; Sternberg, 1994; Sternberg and Spear-Swerling, 1996; Swartz & Parks, 1994; Tishman, Perkins & Jay, 1995; Perkins & Grotzer, 1997). Each of the programs described in these sources has its own definition of thinking and its own definition of skills. In fact, the various definitions of thinking and the number of available options can be confusing (Marzano, Brandt, Hughes, Jones, Presseisen, Rankin & Suhor, 1988). Referring to this same confusion, Resnick (1987) wrote that thinking skills resist precise forms of definition. Some key features of higher order thinking cannot be defined exactly; yet, higher order thinking skills can be recognized when they occur. Some of the characteristics of higher order thinking according to Resnick are the following: it is non-algorithmic, it tends to be complex, it often yields multiple solutions, and it involves the application of multiple criteria, uncertainty and self regulation.


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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anat Zohar
    • 1
  1. 1.School of EducationHebrew UniversityJerusalemIsrael

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