The Role of Family and Situational Problems in Understanding and Reducing Impairment

  • John W. Eagle


Impairment has a widespread impact on family functioning, routines, activities, and relationships between family members. Families provide an invaluable resource in assessing and addressing the needs of individuals experiencing impairment as well as those of other family members. Impairment manifests itself in many ways, but all forms are contextually relevant. An ecological perspective provides an alternative conceptualization of impairment to a biological, medical model. This framework extends the focus of assessment and intervention beyond the individual to other contexts within which the individual interacts. Two of the most important contexts in which that children interact are the home and school environments. Families have a great deal of knowledge and expertise regarding an individual's level of behavioral, social, and academic functioning in multiple settings.


Family Functioning Parenting Style Support Plan Social Validity Collaborative Partnership 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Abidin, R.R. (1995). The Parenting Stress Index professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  2. Baumrind, D. (1968). Authoritarian vs. authoritative parental control. Adolescence, 3, 255–272.Google Scholar
  3. Bloom, B.L. (1985). A factor analysis of self-report measures of family functioning. Family Process, 24, 225–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brassard, M. R., & Boehm, A. E. (2007). Preschool assessment: Principles and practices. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bray, J.H. (1995). Family assessment: Current issues in evaluating families. Family Relations, 44, 469–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Breslau, N. (1983). The psychological study of chronically ill and disabled children: Are healthy siblings appropriate controls? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 11, 379–391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Chen, D., Downing, J. E., & Peckham-Hardin, K. D. (2002). Working with families of diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds. In Koegel, L.K. Koegel, &R.L. DunlapG. , Positive behavior support: Including people with difficult behavior in the community (pp. 133–154). Baltimore: Brookes.Google Scholar
  9. Colton, D., & Sheridan, S. M. (1998). Conjoint behavioral consultation and social skills training: Enhancing the play behavior of boys with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 9, 3–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Conoley, J. C., & Sheridan, S. M. (2005). Understanding and implementing school-family interventions after neuropsychological impairment. In Amato, R.C.D‚ Fletcher-Janzen, & E.F. Reynolds C.R. , Handbook of school neuropsychology (pp. 721–737). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  11. Crone, D. A., & Horner, R. H. (2003). Building positive behavior support systems in schools: Functional behavior assessment. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  12. Deal, A. G., Trivette, C. M., & Dunst, C. J. (1988). Family Functioning Style Scale. In Dunst, C. J. Trivette, & C. M. Deal A. G. , Enabling and empowering families: Principles and guidelines for practice (pp. 175–184). Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books.Google Scholar
  13. Dunst, C. J., Trivette, C. M., & Deal, A. G. (1994). Enabling and empowering families. In C. J. Dunst, C. M. Trivette, & A. G. Deal , Supporting and strengthening families: Methods, strategies, and practices (pp. 2–28). Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books.Google Scholar
  14. Epstein, N. B., Baldwin, L., & Bishop, D. S. (1983). The McMaster family assessment device. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 9, 171–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Epstein, N., Ryan, C., Bishop, D., Miller, I., & Keitner G. (2003). The McMaster model: A view of healthy functioning. In Walsh F., Normal family processes (3rd ed., pp. 581–607). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  16. Fox, L., Vaughn, B. J., Wyatte, M. L., Dunlap, G., & Bucy, M. (1997). Parent-professional partnership in behavioral support: A qualitative analysis of one family‚s experience. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 22, 198–207.Google Scholar
  17. Fox, L., Vaughn, B. J., Wyatte, M. L., & Dunlap, G. (2002). What we expect other people to understand: Family perspectives on problem behavior. Exceptional Children, 68, 437–450.Google Scholar
  18. Freer, P., & Watson, T. S. (1999). A comparison of parent and teacher acceptability ratings of behavioral and conjoint behavioral consultation. School Psychology Review, 28, 672–684.Google Scholar
  19. Galloway, J., & Sheridan, S. M. (1994). Implementing scientific practices through case studies: Examples using home-school interventions and consultation. Journal of School Psychology, 32, 385–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gath, A., & Gumley, D. (1987). Retarded children and their siblings. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 28, 715–730.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gellerstedt, M. E., & Mauksch, L. (1993). Chronic neurologic impairment: A family problem. Family Systems Medicine, 11, 425–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Giallo, R., & Gavida-Payne, S. (2006). Child, parent, and family factors as predictors of adjustment for siblings of children with a disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 50. 937–948.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Harry, B. (1992). Developing cultural self-awareness: The first step in values clarification for early interventionists. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education,12, 222–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Heru, A., & Ryan, C. (2002). Depressive symptoms and family functioning in the caregivers of recently hospitalized patients with chronic/recurrent mood disorders. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, 7, 53–60.Google Scholar
  25. Jackson, A., & Haverkamp, D. E. (1991). Family response to traumatic brain injury. Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 4, 355–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Katz, J. (1985). The sociopolitical nature of counseling. The Counseling Psychologist, 13, 615–624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Koegel, L. K., Steibel, D., & Koegel, R. L. (1998). Reducing aggression in children with autism toward infant or toddler siblings. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 23, 111–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lucyshyn, J. M., Albin, R. W., & Nixon, C. D. (1997). Embedding comprehensive behavioral support in family ecology: An experimental, single-case analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 241–251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lucyshyn, J. M., Horner, R. H., Dunlap, G., Albin, R. W., & Ben, K. R. (2002). Positive behavior support with families. In Lucyshyn, J.M. Dunlap, & G. Albin R. W. Families and positive behavior support: Addressing problem behavior in family contexts (pp. 3–43). Baltimore: Brookes.Google Scholar
  30. Lucyshyn, J. M., Kayser, A. T., Irvin, L. K., & Blumberg, E. R. (2002). Functional assessment and positive behavior support at home and families: Designing effective and contextually appropriate behavior support plans. In J. M. Lucyshyn, G. Dunlap, & R. W. Albin Families and positive behavior support: Addressing problem behavior in family contexts (pp. 3–43). Baltimore: Brookes.Google Scholar
  31. Mactavish, J., B., MacKay, K. J., Iwasaki, Y., & Betteridge, D. (2007). Family caregivers of individuals with intellectual disability: Perspectives on life quality and the role of vacations. Journal of Leisure Research, 39, 127–155.Google Scholar
  32. McCubbin, H.I., & McCubbin, M.A., & Thompson, A.I. (1993). Resiliency in families: The role of family schema and appraisal in family adaptation to crises. In Brubaker T.H. , Family relations: Challenges for the future (pp. 153–177). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  33. McHale, S., Sloan, J., & Simmeonsson, R. (1986). Relationships of children with autistic, mentally retarded and non-handicapped brothers and sisters. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 16, 399–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Miller, L. (1993). Family therapy of brain injury: Syndromes, strategies, and solutions. American Journal of Family Therapy, 21, 111–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Moes, D. R., & Frea, W. D. (2000). Using family context to inform intervention planning for the treatment of a child with autism. Journal of Positive Behavioral Intervention, 2, 40–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Moos, R.H., & Moos, B. S. (2002). Family Environment Scale (3rd. edition). Menlo Park, CA: Mind Garden.Google Scholar
  37. Olson, D. H., & Gorall, D. M. (2003). Circumplex model of marital and family systems. In F. Walsh (Ed.), Normal family processes (3rd ed., pp. 514–547). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  38. Olson, D. H., Gorall, D. M., & Tiesel, J. W. (2005). Faces IV package. Minneapolis, MN: Life Innovations.Google Scholar
  39. O‚Neill, R. E., Horner, R. H., Albin, R. W., Sprague, J. R., Storey, K., &Newton, J. S. (1997). Functional assessment and program development for problem behavior: A practical handbook. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  40. Patterson, J. M. (2002a). Integrating family resilience and family stress theory. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64, 349–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Patterson, J. M. (2002b). Understanding family resilience. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 233–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pianta, R. C., & Walsh, D. J. (1996). High risk children in schools: Constructing sustaining relationships. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  43. Quinn, W.H. (1995). Professional understanding of the community: At a loss for words? In P. Adams and K. Nelson, Reinventing human services: Community- and family-centered practice (pp. 245–259). New York: de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  44. Sheridan, S. M., Cowan, R. J., & Eagle, J. W. (2000). Partnering with parents in educational programming for students with (pp. 307–349) special needs. In Telzrow & C. Tankersley M. , IDEA Amendments of 1997: Practice Guidelines for School-Based Teams. Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.Google Scholar
  45. Sheridan, S. M., Eagle, J. W., Cowan, R. J., & Mickelson, W. (2001). The effects of conjoint behavioral consultation: Results of a 4-year investigation. Journal of School Psychology, 39, 361–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sheridan, S. M., Eagle, J. W., & Doll, B. J. (2006). An examination of the efficacy of conjoint behavioral consultation with diverse clients. School Psychology Quarterly, 21, 396–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sheridan, S. M., Eagle, J. W., & Dowd, S. E. (2005). Families as (pp. 165–179) contexts for children‚s adaptation. In Goldstein and S. R. Brooks, Handbook of resiliency in children. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sheridan, S. M., & Gutkin, T. B. (2000). The ecology of school psychology: Examining and changing our paradigm for the 21st century. School Psychology Review, 29, 485–502.Google Scholar
  49. Sheridan, S. M., & Kratochwill, T. R. (2008). Conjoint behavioral consultation: Promoting family-school connections and interventions (2nd edition). New York: Springer Science and Business Media.Google Scholar
  50. Sheridan, S. M., Kratochwill, T. R., & Bergan, J. R. (1996). Conjoint behavioral consultation: A procedural manual. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  51. Sheridan, S. M., Kratochwill, T. R., & Elliott, S. N. (1990). Behavioral consultation with parents and teachers: Delivering treatment for socially withdrawn children at home and school. School Psychology Review, 19, 33–52.Google Scholar
  52. Sheridan, S. M., Meegan, S., & Eagle, J.W. (2002). Exploring the social context in conjoint behavioral consultation: Linking processes to outcomes. School Psychology Quarterly, 17, 299–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sheridan, S. M., & Steck, M. C. (1995). Acceptability of conjoint behavioral consultation: A national survey of school psychologists. School Psychology Review, 24, 633–647.Google Scholar
  54. Sheridan, S. M., Warnes, E. D., Cowan, R. J., Schemm, A. V., & Clarke, B. L. (2004). Family-centered positive psychology: Focusing on strengths to build student success. Psychology in the Schools, 4, 7–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sloper, P., & Turner, S. (1992). Service needs of families of children with severe physical disability. Child: Care, Health, and Development, 18, 259–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Soriano, M., Soriano, F. I., & Jimenez, E. (1994). School violence among culturally diverse populations: Sociocultural and institutional considerations. School Psychology Review, 23, 216–235.Google Scholar
  57. Sue, D. W., & Sue, D. (1999). Counseling the culturally different. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  58. Swenson, C. R. (1995). Professional understanding of the community: At a loss for words? In Adams and P. Nelson K. , Reinventing human services: Community- and family-centered practice. (pp. 223–244)New York, NY: Adeline de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  59. Turnbull, A. P., & Turnbull, H. R. (1991). Family assessment and family empowerment: An ethical analysis. In Meyer, L. H. Peck, & C. A. Brown L. , Critical issues in the lives of people with severe disabilities (pp. 485–488). Baltimore: Brookes.Google Scholar
  60. Turnbull, A. P., & Turnbull, H. R. (1997). Families, professionals, and exceptionality: A special partnership (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  61. Wade, S., Drotar, D., Taylor, H. G., & Stancin, T. (1995). Assessing the effects of traumatic brain injury on family functioning: Conceptual and methodological issues. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 20, 737–752.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Walsh, F. (2003). Family resilience: A framework for clinical practice. Family Process, 42, 1–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wang, M., Turnbull, A. P., Summers, J. A., Little, T., Poston, D., Mannan, H., et al. (2004). Severity of disability and income as predictors of parents‚ satisfaction with their quality of life during early childhood years. Research and Practice for Persons with Disabilities. Special Issue: Family and Disability, 29, 82–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Weiner, R. K., Sheridan, S. M., & Jenson, W. R. (1998). The effects of conjoint behavioral consultation and a structured homework program on math completion and accuracy in junior high students. School Psychology Quarterly, 13, 281–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wilkinson, L. A. (2005). An evaluation of conjoint behavioral consultation as a model for supporting students with emotional and behavioral difficulties in mainstream classrooms. Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties, 10(2), 119–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Ylven, R., Bjorck-Akesson, E., & Granlund, M. (2006). Literature review of positive functioning in families with children with a disability. Journal of Policy and practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 34, 253–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Zarski, J. J., DePompei, R., & Zook, A. (1988). Traumatic head injury: Dimensions of family responsivity. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 3, 31–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • John W. Eagle
    • 1
  1. 1.School Psychology ProgramRhode Island CollegeProvidenceUSA

Personalised recommendations