At the last world congress of the Communist International which was attended by Lenin, the Fourth Congress held in 1922, the first comments on fascism were made. A few days after Mussolini’s ‘March on Rome’ the International issued a manifesto to the Italian workers. The Italian party was blamed in part for the rise of fascism by its failure to pursue a revolutionary policy, and it was argued that revolutionary action was still possible. The fascist movement was seen as ‘primarily a weapon in the hands of the big landowners’, supported by some workers as well as peasants and déclassé elements. The industrial and commercial bourgeoisie were said to be disturbed by the actions of this ‘black bolshevism’.
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