Social Capital

  • Neil Fraser


I mean by ‘social capital’ in this chapter those elements in social services which are in the interests of industry and which contribute to future economic development. The classification by Richard Titmuss of one model of social policy as ‘the industrial achievement-performance model’1 could be applied to a social policy which aims to maximise social capital in my sense. Social capital will generally coincide with what economists call ‘investment in human capital’, that is, policies which increase the productive quality of the labour force, but I think it is also worth including the criterion of improving industry’s rate of profit, so as to represent the interests of industry explicitly. Identifying the social-capital emphasis of social services will also mean considering to what extent redistributive or bureaucratic elements in social services are actually harmful to industry.


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Notes and References

  1. 1.
    R. Titmuss, Social Policy (London: Allen & Unwin, 1974) ch. 2.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Arguments and evidence about the importance of labour supply to economic growth are contained in C. P. Kindleberger, Europe’s Postwar Growth: The Role of Labour Supply (Oxford University Press, 1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 4.
    For use of the social-wage argument, see ibid, and J. O’Connor, Fiscal Crisis of the State (New York: St Martin’s Press, 1973). I would like to acknowledge my indebtedness to these stimulating sources.Google Scholar
  4. 5.
    H. L. Wilensky and C. N. Lebeaux, Industrial Society and Social Welfare (New York: The Free Press, 1958) is much more about industrialisation’s effect on the demand for welfare than on its social-capital demand.Google Scholar
  5. 6.
    See L. Hunter and D. Robertson, Economics of Wages and Labour (London: Macmillan, 1969) ch. 11.Google Scholar
  6. 7.
    P. B. Doeringer and M. J. Piore, Internal Labour Markets and Manpower Analysis (Lexington, Mass.: D. C. Heath, 1971).Google Scholar
  7. 8.
    See G. McCrone, Regional Policy in Britain (London: Allen & Unwin, 1969) especially chs I and VIII.Google Scholar
  8. 9.
    H. J. Habakkuk, American and British Technology in the Nineteenth Century (Cambridge University Press, 1967).Google Scholar
  9. 11.
    D. S. Landes, The Unbound Prometheus (Cambridge University Press, 1969) chs 3–5, quotation p. 340.Google Scholar
  10. 12.
    G. V. Rimlinger, Welfare Policy and Industrialisation in Europe, America, and Russia (New York: Wiley, 1971) ch. 6.Google Scholar
  11. 15.
    For an attempt at a structure for the analysis of this, see Commission of the E.E.C., The Economic Impact of Social Security, Social Policy Series No. 21 (Brussels, 1970).Google Scholar
  12. 18.
    H. Heclo, Modern Social Politics in Britain and Sweden (Yale University Press, 1974).Google Scholar
  13. 19.
    For an analysis of such a manpower policy, see E. W. Bakke, ‘An Integrated Positive Manpower Policy’, in Employment Policy and the Labour Market, ed. A. Ross (University of California Press, 1965). Sweden’s approach to labour supply is compared with other European countries in Kindleberger, Europe’s Postwar Growth. Google Scholar
  14. 21.
    Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Manpower Policy in the United Kingdom (Paris, 1970).Google Scholar
  15. 22.
    E. Robinson, The New Polytechnics (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1968).Google Scholar
  16. 23.
    E. Boyle and A. Crosland, The Politics of Education (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1971) p. 103.Google Scholar
  17. 24.
    Central Statistical Office, Social Trends (London: H.M.S.O., 1974) table 124.Google Scholar
  18. 26.
    R. Layard, J. Sargan, M. Ager and D. Jones, Qualified Manpower and Economic Performance (London: Allen Lane, 1971).Google Scholar
  19. 27.
    The economic arguments against long-range manpower planning and specialisation are developed in M. Blaug, An Introduction to the Economics of Education (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1972).Google Scholar
  20. 28.
    See M. Wynn, Family Policy (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1972).Google Scholar
  21. 30.
    R. Klein (ed.), Inflation and Priorities (London: Centre for Studies in Social Policy, 1975) ch. 6, ‘Schools’ by J. Barnes.Google Scholar
  22. 32.
    S. Mukherjee, Changing Manpower Needs, Political and Economic Planning Broadsheet 523 (1970).Google Scholar
  23. 34.
    F. F. Piven and R. Cloward, Regulating the Poor (London: Tavistock, 1972).Google Scholar
  24. 38.
    H.M. Treasury, Public Expenditure to1979–80, Cmnd. 6393 (London: H.M.S.O., 1976) p. 1.Google Scholar
  25. 39.
    D. Jackson, H. Turner, F. Wilkinson, Do Trade Unions Cause Inflation? (Cambridge University Press, 1972) ch. 3. The figures in the following sentence are from Klein (ed.), Inflation and Priorities, table 1.4 (relating to 1963 to 1968) and H. Turner and F. Wilkinson, ‘The Seventh Pay Policy’, New Society (17 July 1975) relating to 1964 to 1969.Google Scholar
  26. 40.
    Central Statistical Office, Social Trends (London: H.M.S.O., 1972) p. 58.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Helmuth Heisler, John Carrier, Bleddyn Davies, Neil Fraser, Howard Jones, Peter Kaim-Caudle, Ian Kendall, Thomas McPherson, Della Adam Nevitt, Muriel Nissel, Barbara Rodgers, J. D. Stewart, George F. Thomason 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Neil Fraser

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