Up to the Second World War the economic development of Japan was a field of study neglected by Western scholars and a subject little understood in Europe and America. In the last three decades, however, it has aroused the curiosity of a number of historians and economists in Western countries whose work has supplemented the extensive research of the Japanese themselves. The results of some of the recent research were embodied in the revised edition of this book published in 1962, but since then further advances in knowledge of the subject have been made. Although the latest work has not called in question the outline description and the interpretation of historical events given in the original text, it has necessarily revealed certain lacunae. It has also made available in English new information about events previously treated in summary fashion and has indicated where changes of emphasis are required. The present introduction is intended to bring to the notice of readers some of the chief modifications in the author’s previous accounts of Japan’s economic growth that now seem to be required. This is a limited purpose. To try to provide a comprehensive survey of the recent contributions to our knowledge of the economic history of Japan would, of course, be beyond the scope of a short introduction.


Original Text Permanent Employment Export Trade Agricultural Income Factory Employer 
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Notes and References to Part I

  1. 1.
    R. Dore, ‘The Legacy of Tokugawa Education’, in M. B. Janson (Ed.), Changing Japanese Attitudes Towards Modernisation (Princeton, 1964).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    K. Emi, Government Fiscal Activity and Economic Growth in Japan, 1868–1960 (Tokyo, 1963), p. 129.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. Hirschmeier, The Origins of Entrepreneur ship in Meiji Japan, (Cambridge, Mass., 1964) pp. 170–1; andCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Y. Horie, ‘Entrepreneurship in Meiji Japan’ in W. W. Lockwood (Ed.), The State and Economic Enterprise in Japan (Princeton, 1965), Chapter 4.Google Scholar
  5. 4.
    S. Tsuru states: ‘…the early success of universal education in Japan was undoubtedly one of the most important factors in the rapid modernisation’, Essays in Economic Development (Tokyo, 1968), p. 114.Google Scholar
  6. 5.
    Cf. C. Blacker, The Japanese Enlightenment (Cambridge, 1964), passim.Google Scholar
  7. 6.
    M. Shinohara, Structural Changes in Japan’s Economic Development (Tokyo, 1970), p. 32; Cf. also J. Hirschmeier, op. cit., passim.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    For this controversy see especially J. I. Nakamura, Agricultural Production and the Economic Development of Japan, 1873–1922 (Princeton, 1966);Google Scholar
  9. K. Ohkawa, ‘Agricultural Policy’, in K. Berrill (Ed.), Economic Development with Special Reference to East Asia (New York, 1964);Google Scholar
  10. K. Ohkawa, B. F. Johnston, K. Kameda (Ed.), Agriculture and Economic Growth: Japan’s Experience (Princeton, 1970); and chapters by J. I. Nakamura, H. T. Oshima and K. Ohkawa and H. Rosovsky in W. W. Lockwood (Ed.), op. cit.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    H. Rosovsky, Capital Formation in Japan, 1868–1940 (New York, 1961), passim; and H. Rosovsky, ‘Japanese Capital Formation: The Role of the Public Sector’, Journal of Economic History, September 1959, pp. 350–73.Google Scholar
  12. 13.
    H. Rosovsky, Capital Formation in Japan (New York, 1961), p. 44.Google Scholar
  13. 14.
    M. Shinohara, Structural Changes in Japan’s Economic Development, Chapter 8 (Tokyo, 1970); and Survey of Japanese Literature on the Small Industry (Tokyo, 1970), passim.Google Scholar
  14. 15.
    K. Taira, ‘The Characteristics of the Japanese Labour Market’, Economic Development and Cultural Change, January 1962; ‘The Dynamics of Industrial Relations in Early Japanese Development’, Labour Law Journal, July 1962; and ‘The Inter-Sectoral Wage Differentials in Japan, 1881–1959’, Journal of Farm Economics, May 1962.Google Scholar
  15. 16.
    S. Tsuru, op. cit., pp. 119–20; H. Rosovsky, Capital Formation, pp. 95–6, W. W. Lockwood, The Economic Development of Japan (Princeton, 1954), Chapter 6;Google Scholar
  16. and M. Shinohara, Growth and Cycles in the Japanese Economy (Tokyo, 1962), Chapter 3.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cf: M. Bronfenbrenner ‘Some Lessons of Japan’s Economic Development, 1853–1938’, Pacific Affairs, Spring 1961, p. 23.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    M. Shinohara, Growth etc., pp. 107–8; M. Bronfenbrenner, ‘The Japanese Growth Path; Equilibrium or Disequilibrium?’, The Economic Review (Hitotsubashi University), May 1970, pp. 100–8;Google Scholar
  19. G. C. Allen, ‘Factors in Japan’s Economic Growth’, in C. D. Cowan, The Economic Development of China and Japan (London, 1964), pp. 196–203.Google Scholar
  20. 19.
    A former Minister of Finance, writing about this period, stated: ‘Japan is inherently an excess importer’. J. Inouye, Problems of the Japanese Exchange, 1914–26 (London, 1931), p. 156.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© G. C. Allen 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. C. Allen
    • 1
  1. 1.University of LondonUK

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