The previous chapters have been discussions of the mechanics of mass-points and solid bodies. In this chapter we extend the subject to deal with fluids. All the principles already introduced apply to fluids as well as solids, but a number of new points arise because of the differences between fluids and solids. As was pointed out in section 8.01, the distinction between fluids and solids lies in the fact that a fluid does not generate internal forces — stresses — just because its shape has been changed, while a solid does. Traditionally, matter has been conceived as existing in three distinct states: solid, liquid, and gaseous. As we saw in Chapter 8, the distinction between solid and liquid is not always easy to make, but the classification is nevertheless still useful in a majority of cases. To summarize the properties of the three states, let us define them.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.