By the 1st millennium BC the Diakhi (Taokhi) and the Qolha (Colchis) tribal groups had coalesced and developed bronze casting techniques. A two-state confederation emerged as early as the 6th century BC, with Colchis (Egrisi) in the west and Kartli (Iberia) in the east. The Greeks established Black Sea colonies from the 6th century BC, including Phasis (present-day Poti), Gyenos (Ochamchire) and Dioscuras (Sukhumi). Parnavaz I ruled a united Kartli (or Georgia) from his citadel of Armaztsikhe from c. 302–237 BC.
KeywordsClay Maize Mercury Manganese Arsenic
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