Re-engagement with the Global Economy
Twice in the space of a century and a half, China emerged from relative isolation and autarky to engagement with the international system. On the first occasion, this engagement was a consequence of imperialism and the forced opening of China by military power. Re-engagement of the post Mao era had a shared feature with the first case — the international system was not of China’s making, Chinese elites did not accept the norms of the system, and many in China perceived external actors as hostile forces opposed to China’s national interests and determined to prevent Chinese development.
KeywordsSugar Europe Petroleum Income Marketing
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