The Attitude of the Russian Orthodox Church and the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church to the Holocaust During World War II

  • Mikhail Shkarovski


Little attention has been paid by historians to the subject of this paper, despite the fact that the Russian Orthodox Church was at the centre of events in World War II and was forced to react very directly in one way or another to the Holocaust. It should be emphasized that at that time the Russian Orthodox Church was not a united body and had broken up into several jurisdictions. Even before the beginning of the war between Germany and the USSR, many Russian emigré priests in different countries of Europe had expressed their opinion on the persecution of Jews. They belonged to two jurisdictions: that of Metropolitan Evlogy in Paris and that of the Synod of Bishops of the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad in Belgrade.


Jewish People Archival Document Hiding Place Occupied Territory Russian People 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 2.
    A.K. Nikitin, Natsistskiy rezhim I russkaya pravoslavnaya obshchina v Germanii (1933–1945 gg) (Moscow: published by the author, 1998), p.96.Google Scholar
  2. 7.
    Metropolitan Evlogy (Georgievski) Puť moej zhizni, Vospominanija mitropolitan Evlogija, izlozhennye po ego rasskazam T, Manukhinoj (Paris: YMCA Press, 1947), pp.663, 670.Google Scholar
  3. 8.
    Protohierarch Sergy Gakkel, Mať Maria (1891–1945), (Paris: YMCA Press, 1980), pp. 160–162.Google Scholar
  4. 11.
    I.A. Krivoshein, ‘Tak nam velelo serdtse’, in Protiv obshchego vraga, Sovetskie lyudi vo frantsuzskom dvizhenii Soprotivlenia (Moscow: Politizdat, 1972), pp.270–271;Google Scholar
  5. I.A. Krivoshein, ‘Mať Maria (Skobt-sova) (K 25-letiu so dnya konchiny)’, Zhurnal Moskovskoy Patriarkhii (Moscow, 1970), p.39.Google Scholar
  6. 19.
    Käte Gaede, ‘Russische orthodoxe Kirche’, in Deutschland in der ersten Hälfte des 20, Jahrhunderts (Köln: Edition Orthodoxie, 1985), pp.246–247.Google Scholar
  7. 27.
    Jean-Marie Mayeur, Die Geschichte des Christentums, Bd. 12: Erster und Zweiter Weltkrieg — Demokratien und totalitäre Systeme (1914–1958) (Freiburg-Basel-Wien: Herder, 1992), p.976.Google Scholar
  8. 28.
    Sergi Gakkel, ‘Zapadnoye bogoslovie posle Oswencima i Russkaya Pravoslavnaya Tserkov’, Stranitsy 3/3 (Moscow, 1998), p.403.Google Scholar
  9. 34.
    See R. Headtand, Messages of Murder: A Study of the Reports of the Einsatztruppen of the Security Police and the Security Service, 1941–1943 (London and Toronto, 1992), p. 114.Google Scholar
  10. 35.
    Hansjakob Stehle, ‘Der Lemberger Metropolit Sheptytskyj und die national-sozialistische Politik in der Ukraine’, Vierteljahreshefte für Zeitgeschichte 34/3 (München, 1986), p.411.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mikhail Shkarovski

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations