Antisemitic Writings of the Arrow Cross Emigration
The final months of World War II saw the beginning of a massive migration from Hungary. According to a survey by the records department of the Ministry of Defence, approximately 580,000 persons working for the military, the gendarmerie and the police migrated to Germany. Another 3–4,000 civilian refugees went with them. As the Soviet army advanced, some one million Hungarians left the country. Most returned in 1946, but about 100,000 remained behind, mostly in the Western zone of Germany. The officers’ corps and former high-level civil servants made up the backbone of the 1944–45 emigration. The majority of the stateless refugees did not become involved in politics. Those who were politically active, however, were adherents of the ousted governor Miklós Horthy, who was averse to any public role among the exiles, or of the ‘national leader’ Ferenc Szálasi, who had been executed in Budapest as a war criminal. The followers of Horthy were more numerous. They established the exiles’ two major political organizations, the Hungarian Freedom Movement (Magyar Szabadság Mozgalom, 1946), and the Alliance of Hungarian Veterans (Magyar Harcosok Bajtársi Közössége, 1948). In 1954, the Alliance claimed around 10,000 members,2 of whom 25 percent were officers, 20 percent warrant officers, and 55 percent non-commissioned officers and enlisted men.
KeywordsNational Leader Early Fifty Jewish Question Holocaust Denial Nuremberg Trial
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