Advertisement

Surviving Well

Resistance to Adversity
  • Kerry Bluglass
Chapter

Abstract

This paper considers the adjustment of some survivors, Hidden Children, from two overlapping perspectives, my own as a psychiatrist and those of some resilient Hidden Children whose interviews with me explore their lives in hiding during World War II. Our shared belief, identifying those with a positive outcome following their childhood is that in studying harm to children we do not sufficiently identify good consequences, as well as bad. This can lead to pervasive negative, cultural and professional stereotypes. These interviews form part of a much larger work, documenting many interviews recorded in Europe and Israel, with a view to eventual publication. People who feel that they have overcome adversity wish to impart an optimistic message about the strength and infinite variety of the human organism, for the benefit of future generations, and do not wish the world to view them as helpless victims. In this paper we seek — while the protagonists’ memories are still vivid — to review and challenge from our separate perspectives the perception that the effect of Holocaust experiences inevitably resulted in poor outcomes for all Child Survivors.

Keywords

Child Survivor Jewish Identity Psychological Injury Holocaust Survivor Moral Courage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 2.
    M.S. Bergman and M.E. Jucovy, Generations of the Holocaust (New York: Columbia University Press, 1982);Google Scholar
  2. Nelly Wolffheim, Psychoanalyse und Kindergarten und andere Arbeiten zur Kinderpsychologie (Munich: Ernst Reinhardt, 1966);Google Scholar
  3. Anna Freud and S. Dann, ‘An Experiment in Group Upbringing’, in R. Eissler (ed.), Psychoanalytic Study of the Child (1945–79), vol.6 (1951): 127–69; M. Wangh, ‘Die Beurteilung von Wiedergutmachungsanspruchen der während der nationalsozialistischen Verfolgung geborenen Kinder’, Spätschäden nach Extrembelastungen (Herberg, 1971): 270–274;Google Scholar
  4. H. Wijsenbeek, Lecture held at Netherlands-Israel Symposium on the impact of Persecution, Jerusalem, October 1977.Google Scholar
  5. 3.
    S. Robinson, ‘Late Effects of Persecution in Persons Who — as Children or Young Adolescents — Survived Nazi Occupation in Europe’, Israel Annals of Psychiatry and Related Disciplines 17 (1979): 3.Google Scholar
  6. 5.
    E. Fogelman and B. Savran, ‘Brief Group Therapy with Offspring of Holocaust Survivors: Leaders’ Reactions’, American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 50 (1) (1980): 96–108;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. E. Fogelman, ‘A Bibliography: Psychosocial Impact of the Holocaust Second Generation of Survivors’, in H. Epstein (ed.), Children of the Holocaust (New York: Penguin, 1988);Google Scholar
  8. J.N. Porter, ‘Social Psychological Aspects of the Holocaust’, in B.L. Sherwin and G.S. Ament (eds.), Encountering the Holocaust, (Chicago: Impact Press, 1979), pp.189–222;Google Scholar
  9. J.S. Kestenberg and I. Brenner, The Last Witness: The Child Survivor of the Holocaust (Washington: American Psychiatric Press, 1996).Google Scholar
  10. 6.
    H. Krystal (ed.), Massive Psychic Trauma, (New York: International Universities Press, 1968).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    K.P. Kisker, ‘Die Psychiatrische Begutachtung der Opfer Nazionalsozialistischer Verfolgung’, Psychiatria et Neurologia 2 (Dresden: Geselloch, 1961).Google Scholar
  12. 13.
    L. Eitinger, ‘Concentration Camp Survivors in the Post-war World’, American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 32 (1961): 367–75;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. S. Davidson, ‘The Treatment of Holocaust Survivors’, in S. Davidson (ed.), Spheres of Psychotherapeutic Activity (Jerusalem: Medical Department, Kupat Cholim Center, 1972).Google Scholar
  14. 15.
    S. Moskowitz, Love Despite Hate (New York: Schocken Books, 1988);Google Scholar
  15. M. Gilbert, The Boys: Triumph over Adversity (London: Phoenix, 1997).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    V. Rakoff, ‘Children and Families of Concentration Camp Survivors’, Canada’s Mental Health 14 (1969): 24–26;Google Scholar
  17. J. Sigal, ‘Second Generation Effects of Massive Trauma’, International Psychiatry Clinics 8 (1971): 55–65, reprinted in Krystal and Niederland (eds.), Psychic Traumatization: After-Effects in Individuals and Communities, Vol.8, no.1 (Boston: Little, Brown, 1971);Google Scholar
  18. J. Sigal, ‘Hypotheses and Methodology in the Study of Families of Holocaust Survivors’, in E.J. Anthony and C. Koupernik (eds.), The Child in His Family: Children at Risk (New York: Wiley, 1973), pp.411–18; B. Trossman, ‘Adolescent Children of Concentration Camp Survivors’, Canadian Psychiatric Journal 12 (1968); 121–123; Krystal (1968); Fogelman and Savran (1980).Google Scholar
  19. 18.
    S. Moskowitz, ‘Barriers to Gratitude’, Remembering for the Future, Conference Proceedings, eds. Yehuda Bauer et al. (Oxford: Pergamon), 1989.Google Scholar
  20. 19.
    Bluglass (forthcoming); Jane Marks, The Hidden Children: Secret Survivors of the Holocaust (London: Piatkus/Bantam: 1993);Google Scholar
  21. W. Sliwowska (ed.), The Last Eye Witnesses: Children of the Holocaust Speak, tr. J. and F. Bussgang (Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 1998; originally published as Dzieci Holocaustu Mowia (Warsaw: Stowarzysenie Dzieci Holocaustu w Polsce [Association of Children of the Holocaust in Poland], 1993);Google Scholar
  22. P. Valent, Child Survivors: Adults Living with Childhood Trauma (Port Melbourne, Victoria: William Heinemann Australia, 1994);Google Scholar
  23. J. Fischler-Martinho, Have You Seen My Little Sister? (London: Valentine Mitchell, 1998);Google Scholar
  24. J. David, A Square of Sky (London: Eland, 1992);Google Scholar
  25. D. Dwork, Children with a Star (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1991); N. David in J. Marks, Hidden Children, pp.3–14; B. Bloch and M. Drucker, Rescuers: Portraits of Moral Courage in the Holocaust (New York: Holmes and Meier);Google Scholar
  26. C. Vegh, Je ne lui ai pas dit Au revoir’ (Paris: Folio, 1979; English trans. by E.P. Dutton, 1984).Google Scholar
  27. 22.
    R. Krell, ‘Therapeutic Value of Documenting Child Survivors’, Journal of American Academy of Child Psychiatry 24 (1985): 397–400; R. Krell, ‘The Mystery and Dignity of Very Young Survivors’, The Hidden Child Newsletter (Hidden Child Foundation/ADL, Winter, 1998–1999), pp. 1,7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 26.
    H. Keilson, Sequential Traumatisation of Children (Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke, 1979).Google Scholar
  29. 28.
    P. Levi, If This Be A Man (London: Penguin, 1979)Google Scholar
  30. 29.
    B. Bettleheim, ‘Individual and Mass Behaviour in Extreme Situations’, Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology 38 (1943): pp.417–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 38.
    J. Bowlby, ‘Separation Anxiety: A Critical Review of the Literature’, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 1 (1960): 251–69;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. R. Spitz, ‘The First Year of Life’, in The Psychoanalytic Study of Normal and Deviant Object Relations (New York: International Universities Press, 1965).Google Scholar
  33. 39.
    D.W. Winnicott, The Maturational Process and the Facilitating Environment (London: Hogarth Press, 1965).Google Scholar
  34. 40.
    I. Kolvin et al., ‘Risk/Protective Factors, for Offending with Particular Reference to Deprivation’, in M. Rutter (ed.), Studies of Psychosocial Risk (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988), pp.77–95.Google Scholar
  35. 41.
    CM. Parkes, Bereavement Studies of Grief in Adult Life (London: Penguin, 1972);Google Scholar
  36. G.W. Brown et al., ‘Depression and Loss’, British Journal of Psychiatry 130 (1977): 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 42.
    R. Harrington and L. Harrison, ‘Unproved Assumptions about the Impact of Bereavement on Children’, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 92 (1999): 230–233.Google Scholar
  38. 45.
    P.M. Oliner and S.P. Oliner, The Altruistic Personality: Rescue of Jews in Nazi Europe (New York: Free Press, 1988); M. Paldiel, ‘The Altruism of the Righteous Gentiles’, Remembering for the Future, 512–525; G. Bloch and M. Drucker, Rescuers: Portraits of Moral Courage in the Holocaust (New York: Holmes and Meier).Google Scholar
  39. 46.
    J. Bowlby, The Making and Breaking of Affectional Bonds (London: Tavistock, 1979).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kerry Bluglass

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations