• Torgeir Aarvaag Stokke
Part of the The Societies of Europe book series (SOEU)


Norway’s small Northern European export-orientated economy has always been based on natural resources: wood, hydropower, and-more recently-offshore oil. Like Sweden, from which it gained full independence in 1905, Norway industrialized later but more rapidly than Denmark, on which it depended until 1814. Enjoying a long democratic tradition, having gained national independence late, and benefiting from its profitable natural resources, the Norwegian people twice voted to stay out of the European Community. To a large degree, Norwegian labour relations follow the Nordic model set by Sweden: a social compromise between organized capital and labour leading to relatively centralized bargaining practices and concertation with the state in social and economic policies. Nevertheless, before the 1930s, Norwegian labour relations were relatively conflictual, with syndicalist tendencies prevailing. In addition to labour conflict, Norway’s social and political landscape exhibits traditional crosscutting rural-urban and centre-periphery cleavages, while the Norwegians are predominantly Protestant.


Private Sector Public Sector Collective Bargaining Labour Relation Labour Party 
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© Bernhard Ebbinghaus and Jelle Visser 2000

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  • Torgeir Aarvaag Stokke

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