Advertisement

Italy

  • Jelle Visser
Chapter
Part of the The Societies of Europe book series (SOEU)

Abstract

Discontinuities in both pre- and post-war industrial relations and union development in Italy are pronounced. Before 1945, democratic development and genuine union organization were interrupted by more than two decades of fascist violence and dictatorship, starting in 1922. Before World War I, there had hardly been two decades of union organizing, and that was along deeply divided patterns of socialist or reformist, revolutionary or anarcho-syndicalist, and Catholic or class collaborationist ideology. Further characteristics of Italy’s union movement were the uneven regional development, the strong impact of agricultural workers’ and peasant unions, and the conflicts between local and national trade or industry-based union structures. All of these conflicts and divisions, except revolutionary syndicalism, resurfaced after 1945. A brief phase of democratic reconstruction was followed by twenty years of labour exclusion, employer authoritarianism and a weak and divided union movement. This was radically changed by the explosion of worker discontent, a cycle of social and political mobilization (1968–73), the introduction of new union and worker rights in the workplace (1970), a rapid growth of unionization (1969–77), close co-operation between the unions and increasing union power in both the industrial and political arenas. This phase came to an end in the final years of the 1970s. In the 1980s, unions lost influence and bargaining power, internal divisions reappeared, and fractures between central policies and local practices increased in a general climate of stagnating membership and lower participation. The dramatic events of the early 1990s, the overhaul of Italy’s electoral and party system, the downfall of the Christian Democrats (Italy’s governing party for 48 years), the corruption scandals, the dimensions of the crisis of Italy’s public finances and the pressure of European integration all represent a major transition in Italian political and industrial relations. The year 1993 may be as important as 1969 or 1945 was. Unions regained strength, as they stood firm where parties faltered.

Keywords

Private Sector Public Sector Collective Bargaining Industrial Relation Union Membership 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Bibliography

  1. Abse, T. (1994), ‘Italy: A New Agenda’. In P. Anderson and P. Camiller, eds. Mapping the West European Left. London: Verso, 189–232.Google Scholar
  2. Accornero, A., ed. (1976), Problemi del movimento sindacale in Italia 1943–73. Milan: Fondazione Giangiacomo Feltrinelli.Google Scholar
  3. —(1992), La parabolo del sindacato. Ascesa e declino di una cultura. Bologna: il Mulino.Google Scholar
  4. Allum, P. (1988), Italy: Republic without Government. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  5. Andreucci, F. (1990), ‘Italy’. In M. van der Linden and J. Rojahn, eds. The Formation of Labour Movements 1870–1914. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 191–209.Google Scholar
  6. Baldissara, A. (1988), La svolta dei quarantamila. Dai quadri Fiat ai Cobas. Milan: CommutitiGoogle Scholar
  7. Bertrant, C. (1992), ‘Italy’. In J. Campbell, ed. European Labor Unions. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 255–69.Google Scholar
  8. Bordogna, L. (1989), ‘The COBAS: Fragmentation of Trade Union Representation and Conflict’. In R. Leonardi and P. Corbetta, eds. Italian Politics: A Review. London: Pinter, 50–65.Google Scholar
  9. —(1994), Pluralismo senza mercato. Rappresentanza e conflitto nel settore pubblico. Milan: Assri-Angeli.Google Scholar
  10. Carried, M. (1997), ‘I sindacati non confederali’. In CESOS, Le relazioni sindacali in Italia nel 1994–95. Rome: CESOS.Google Scholar
  11. —, and L. Tatarelli (1997), Gli altri sindacati. Viaggio nelle organizzazione autonome e di base. Rome: Ediesse.Google Scholar
  12. CESOS (1982-97), Le relazioni sindacali in Italia. Rome: Edizioni Lavoro.Google Scholar
  13. Coi, S. (1979), ‘Sindacati in Italia’. Il Mulino 27: 201–42.Google Scholar
  14. —(1980), ‘Radiografia e strategia dei sindacati autonomi’. Il Mulino 29: 733–69.Google Scholar
  15. Contini, G. (1991), ‘Enterprise Management and Employer Organization in Italy: Fiat, Public Enterprise and Confìnustria’. In S. Tolliday and J. Zeitlin, eds. The Power to Manage? Industrial Relations in Comparative Perspective. London: Routledge, 204–27.Google Scholar
  16. Della Rocca, G. (1994), ‘L’esperienza italiana della struttura rappresentativa di base’. In M. De Sanctis, ed. Il sindacato dei luoghi di lavoro. Le rappresentanze sindacali unitarie. Rome: Edizione Lavoro, 73–102.Google Scholar
  17. Di Nicola, P. (1991), ‘Sindacalizzazione e rappresentanza negli anni ottanta’. IRES Materiali 3/91: 5–87.Google Scholar
  18. —(1993), ‘L’adesione al sindacato del lavoratore negli anni novanta’. IRES Materiali 3/93: 43–112.Google Scholar
  19. Ferner, A., and R. Hyman (1992), ‘Italy: Between Political Exchange and Micro-Corporatism’. In A. Ferner and R. Hyman, eds. Industrial Relations in the New Europe. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 524–600.Google Scholar
  20. Giacinto, E., and M. Giacinto (1999), Tredici anni di Sindacalizzazione (1986–1998) (unpublished manuscript).Google Scholar
  21. Golden, M. (1988), Labor Divided: Authority and Working-Class Politics in Contemporary Italy. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Grote, J. (1994), ‘Relevance of Size and Territory for the Organization of Business Interests in Europe’. In J. Greenwood, ed. European Casebook on Business Alliances. London: Prentice-Hall, 237–58.Google Scholar
  23. — (1995), ‘Cohesion in Italy: A View on Non-Economic Disparities’. In L. Hooghe, ed. Cohesion Policies in Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Guigni, G. (1989), Lavoro, Legge, Contratti. Bologna: Il Mulino.Google Scholar
  25. Hine, D. (1993), Governing Italy: The Politics of Bargained Pluralism. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  26. Lanzalaco, L. (1990), Dall’impresa all’associazione. Le organizzazioni degli imprenditori. La Confindustria in prospettiva comparata. Milan: Franco Angeli.Google Scholar
  27. Mannheimer, R. (1991), Lega Lombarda. Milan: Angeli.Google Scholar
  28. Martinelli, A. (1980), ‘Organized Business and Italian Politics: Confindustria and the Christian Democrats in the Postwar Period’. In P. Lange and S. Tarrow, eds. Italy in Transition. Conflict and Consensus. London: Frank Cass, 67–87.Google Scholar
  29. Mershon, C, and G. Pasquino, eds. (1995), Italian Politics: A Review. Vol. 9: Ending the First Republic. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  30. Napoli, M. (1989), ‘I sindacati maggiormente rappresentativi: rigorosita del modello legislativo e tendenze della prassi applicativa’. Quaderni di diritto del lavoro e delle relazioni industriali 5: 7–47.Google Scholar
  31. Negrelli, S., and E. Santi (1990), ‘Industrial Relations in Italy’. In G. Baglioni and C. Crouch, eds. European Industrial Relations: The Challenge of Flexibility. London: Sage, 154–98.Google Scholar
  32. Neufeld A. (1961), Italy: School for Awakening Nations. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Pasquino, G. (1994), ‘Der unerwartete Machtwechsel. Die italienischen Wahlen vom März 1994 und ihre Folgen’. Politische Vierteljahresschrift, 383–401.Google Scholar
  34. Perulli, P., ed. (1991), Le relazioni industriali nella piccola impresa. Milan: Angeli.Google Scholar
  35. Pizzorno, A., E. Reyneri, M. Regini, and I. Regalia (1978), Lotte operaia e sindacato: il ciclo 1968–1972 in Italia. Bologna: Il Mulino.Google Scholar
  36. Regalia, I. (1984), Eletti e abbandonati. Modelli e stili di rappresentanza in fabbrica. Bologna: Il Mulino.Google Scholar
  37. —(1995), ‘Works Councils: The Costs and Benefits of Informality’. In J. Rogers and W. Streeck, eds. Works Councils: Consultation, Representation, Cooperation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 217–42.Google Scholar
  38. —, and M. Regini (1997), ‘Italy: The Dual Character of Industrial Relations’. In A. Ferner and R. Hyman, eds. Changing Industrial Relations in Europe. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 283–314.Google Scholar
  39. Regini, M. (1991), Confini mobili. La construzione dell’economia fra politica e societa. Bologna: Il Mulino.Google Scholar
  40. —, and C. Sabel, eds. (1989), Strategie di reaggiustamento industriale. Bologna: Il Mulino.Google Scholar
  41. Romagnoli, G., ed. (1980), La sindacalizzazione tra ideologia e pratica. Il caso italiano 1950–1977. 2 vols. Rome: Edizioni Lavoro.Google Scholar
  42. —, and G. Della Rocca (1982), ‘Il sindacato’. In G. Cella and T. Treu, eds. Relazione industriali. Manuale per l’analisi della esperienza italiana. Bologna: Il Mulino, 79–130.Google Scholar
  43. Salvadori, M. (1994), Storia d’Italia e crisi dei regime. Bologna: Il Mulino.Google Scholar
  44. Squarzon, C. (1989), ‘I consigli dei delegati vent’anni dopo’. Prospettiva sindacale no. 73/74 (Special Issue ‘A vent’anni dall’autunno caldo’): 151–71.Google Scholar
  45. Stefanelli, R., ed. (1981), I sindacati autonomi. Bari: De Donato.Google Scholar
  46. Treu, T. (1994), ‘Procedures and Institutions of Incomes Policy in Italy’. In R. Dore, R. Boyer, and Z. Mars, eds. The Return to Incomes Policy. London: Pinter, 161–74.Google Scholar
  47. —, G. Geroldi, and M. Maiello (1993), ‘Italy: Labour Relations’. In J. Hartog and J. Theeuwes, eds. Labour Market Contracts and Institutions. A Cross-National Comparison. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 323–50.Google Scholar
  48. Trigilia, C. (1992), Sviluppo senza autonomia. Effetti perversi della politiche nel Mezzogiorno. Bologna: Il Mulino.Google Scholar
  49. Turone, S. (1988), Il sindacato nell’Italia del benessere. Rome: Laterza.Google Scholar
  50. —(1993), Storia del sindacato in Italia dal 1943 al crollo del comunismo. Rome: Laterza.Google Scholar
  51. Visser, J. (1989), ‘Italy’. In J. Visser, European Trade Unions in Figures, 1913–1985. Deventer: Kluwer, 105–29.Google Scholar
  52. —(1996), ‘Italy’. In J. van Ruysseveldt and J. Visser, eds. Industrial Relations in Europe: Traditions and Transitions. London: Sage.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Bernhard Ebbinghaus and Jelle Visser 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jelle Visser

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations