• Daniele Caramani
Part of the The Societies of Europe book series (SOEU)


Minor border changes occurred in France after 1815. The country was able to acquire large territories during the Napoleonic wars and, after the Congress of Vienna, the main modifications concerned Alsace (not including the Territoire-de-Belfort) and Lorraine (excluding the department of Meurthe-et-Moselle). These two regions were annexed by Germany in 1871 and remained German until 1918. After World War I Alsace-Lorraine returned to France, although during World War II, they were again occupied by German forces.


Electoral System Absolute Majority Socialist Party Direct Election Plural Vote 
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© Daniele Caramani 2000

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  • Daniele Caramani

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