• Daniele Caramani
Part of the The Societies of Europe book series (SOEU)


Until World War I the Austro-Hungarian Empire was a multi-national political and military power. The Habsburg Empire included territories of what is today Poland, Ukraine, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, and Romania as well as Austria and Hungary. With the unification of Italy the empire lost the Lombard (1859) and Venetian (1866) regions but was able to keep the Tyrolean and the Trent regions. With the Ausgleich of 1867, the empire was divided into two parts, with the Leitha River forming part of the border between the two: the Austrian half (Cisleithania, officially named ‘Kingdoms and States represented in the Imperial Council’ to underline the great national diversity of the state) and the Hungarian half (Transleithania).1 In 1878 Bosnia and Hercegovina were placed under the ‘provisional administration’ of the Habsburgs; they were formally annexed to the empire in 1908.


Democratic Progressive Party Direct Election Republican Period Imperial Period Austrian Election 
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© Daniele Caramani 2000

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  • Daniele Caramani

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