Sweden controlled the Finnish territories from the twelfth until the nineteenth century. From 1397 until the mid-fifteenth century Sweden was part of the Kalmar Union with Denmark and Norway under the Danish crown. In 1721 Sweden lost south-eastern Karelia with the city of Wiborg to Russia, and in 1808, the entire province of Finland became part of the Tsarist empire of Alexander I after the Swedish defeat in the war against Russia. Denmark, in alliance with Napoleon, was defeated in the battle of Lipsia in 1813 and had to cede Norway to Sweden. Norway gained independence in 1905. The electoral evolution of Finland and Norway is not considered here (see Country Chapters 4 and 13).
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