• Daniele Caramani
Part of the The Societies of Europe book series (SOEU)


Like the other Iberian country Portugal, Spain is an old established state that has undergone only minor territorial changes on the European continent in the last two centuries. The history of this country has nonetheless been marked by deep cleavages between royalists and Carlists, between the central state and regional cultures, and between Republicans and Francoists in more recent times, as well as by larger territorial changes with the loss of the colonies.


Territorial Unit Direct Election Great Elector Eligible Voter Universal Suffrage 
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© Daniele Caramani 2000

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  • Daniele Caramani

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