Norway originated as an economic area that developed in the Middle Ages out of the trade movements along the ‘route to the North’ (nordvegr). Inland areas of the peninsula were gradually incorporated, and the kingdom (including The Faeroes, Iceland, and Greenland) was consolidated in the course of the thirteenth century. The political and territorial consolidation of the Kingdom of Norway faced Danish dominance in the North Sea and was able to develop only slowly. In 1380 Norway came under Danish rule. In 1397 Norway, under the Danish crown, became part of the Kalmar Union with Denmark and Sweden (as well as Finland, which was under Swedish rule). The link between Norway and Denmark became stronger when, in the fifteenth century, Sweden left the Union. The 1450 Treaty of Bergen granted Norway formal independence from the Danish administration.
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