At the Congress of Vienna of 1815, the Belgian provinces and the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg were incorporated into the United Kingdom of the Low Countries. A double sovereignty existed in Luxemburg of the two crowns of The Netherlands and of the Grand Duchy with combined succession rights. Luxemburg was also part of the German Union (Deutsche Bund). On 22 April 1815 King William declared Luxemburg part of the Dutch territory. The 18th province of The Netherlands sent four representatives to the Staten-Generaal. After Belgian independence in 1831, The Netherlands kept control of Luxemburg. In reality Luxemburg sent its representatives to the Belgian parliament (elections of 1831, 1833, and 1837). In 1839, the Treaty of London on 19 April established that the French-speaking western part of Luxemburg would be annexed to Belgium, while the German-speaking eastern half was granted the independence denied after the Congress of Vienna, but would remain part of the German Union. In 1866 the German Union was dissolved and in 1889 Luxemburg became independent also from the dynastic point of view.
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