• Daniele Caramani
Part of the The Societies of Europe book series (SOEU)


Larger political units began to develop on the Italian peninsula after the Middle Ages, until then the home of city-states, republics, duchies, principalities, and so on.1 Several of these units were under the influence or direct rule of foreign powers for longer periods-Spain, Austria, and France in particular. After the turmoil of the Napoleonic wars, the Congress of Vienna left the Italian territory fragmented and strengthened the foreign influence on the peninsula.2


Liberal Democratic Party Territorial Unit Socialist Party Plurality Vote Universal Suffrage 
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© Daniele Caramani 2000

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  • Daniele Caramani

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