Integration Through Referendums?

  • Simon Hug
  • Lars P. Feld


Instruments of direct democracy have been considered both as hurdles to integration and as facilitating factors for integration. In the context of European Integration referendums are even envisioned as possible solutions to the ‘democratic deficit’. The insights from the literature on referendums do not allow, however, the role of direct democracy in processes of integration to be judged. In this chapter I explore with game theoretic tools the likely consequences of ratification referendums in an integration process. I show that referendums are likely to increase the legitimity of decisions but that the leeway for treaty revisions becomes smaller and integration may become more fragmented.


European Union European Integration Median Voter National Electorate Direct Democracy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Simon Hug
  • Lars P. Feld

There are no affiliations available

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