Economic Organization and Innovation in Japan: Networks, Spin-offs and the Creation of Enterprise

  • Michael L. Gerlach
  • James R. Lincoln


Among the many extraordinary aspects of Japan’s postwar economic growth, perhaps none is more dramatic than the nation’s move from technological follower to technological leader. Overall rates of patenting in Japan rose faster than in any other advanced economy over the past several decades, such that Japanese inventors collectively rank at or near the top of national lists of new patent holders (Okimoto and Saxonhouse, 1987; National Science Foundation, 1997). Japanese companies have also rapidly increased their technology exports. These exports first exceeded imports in 1972, and by the mid-1980s, the technology export: import ratio was approaching 2:1 (Okimoto and Saxonhouse, 1987). Even in 1994, with Japan in the middle of a recession, technology exports to the US exceeded imports by over $14 billion (National Science Foundation, 1997).


Venture Capital Equity Capital Economic Organization Japanese Firm Parent Firm 
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© Michael L. Gerlach and James R. Lincoln 2000

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  • Michael L. Gerlach
  • James R. Lincoln

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