The Legacy of the Marshall Plan: American Public Support for Foreign Aid

  • Robert Shapiro
Part of the Europe in Transition: The NYU European Studies Series book series (EIT)

Abstract

This article reviews the post-World War II shift of American public opinion away from isolationism. With the high level of public support for the Marshall Plan, and with the perceived success of the Plan and other American policies, the American public has been supportive of foreign aid proposals and policies initiated by its political leaders, despite misperceptions to the contrary. Americans have continued to make clear distinctions between and among different types of foreign assistance and other policies, involving friends and foes alike.

Keywords

Europe Turkey Defend Cuban Mili 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Cohen, Bernard C. (1973), The Public’s Impact on Foreign Policy, Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  2. Delli Carpini, Michael, and Scott Keeter (1996), What Americans Know about Politics and Why It Matters, New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Eisinger, Robert (1994), “Presidential Polling in the 1950s and Beyond,” Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Public Opinion Research.Google Scholar
  4. Foster, H. Schuyler (1983), Activism Replaces Isolationism: U.S. Public Attitudes, 1940–1975, Washington, DC: Foxhall.Google Scholar
  5. Graham, Thomas (1994), “Public Opinion and U.S. Foreign Policy Decision Making,” in D. Deese, ed., The New Politics of American Foreign Policy, New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  6. Hilderbrand, Robert (1981), Power and the People: Executive Management of Public Opinion in Foreign Affairs, 1897—1921, Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  7. Hinckley, Ronald H. (1992), People, Polls, and Policymakers: American Public Opinion and National Security, New York: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  8. Jacobs, Lawrence R. (1992), “The Recoil Effect: Public Opinion and Policy Making in the United States and Britain.” Comparative Politics, 24: 199–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jacobs, Lawrence R. and Robert Y. Shapiro (1994), “Issues, Candidate Image, and Priming: The Use of Private Polls in Kennedy’s 1960 Presidential Campaign,” American Political Science Review, 88 (September): 527–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jacobs, Lawrence R. and Robert Y. Shapiro (1995), “The Rise of Presidential Polling: The Nixon White House in Historical Pespective,” Public Opinion Quarterly, 59: 163–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jentleson, Bruce (1992), “The Pretty Prudent Public: Post Vietnam American Opinion on the Use of Military Force,” International Studies Quarterly, 36: 49–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kernell, Samuel (1976), “The Truman Doctrine Speech: A Case Study of the Dynamics of Presidential Opinion Leadership,” Social Science History (Fall): 20–44.Google Scholar
  13. Leigh, Michael (1976), Mobilizing Consent: Public Opinion and American Foreign Policy, 1937–1947. Westport, CT: Greenwood.Google Scholar
  14. Mueller, John (1994), Policy and Opinion in the Gulf War, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  15. Oneal, John R., Brad Lian, and James H. Joyner, Jr. (1996), “Are the American People ‘Pretty Prudent’? Public Responses to the U.S. Uses of Force, 1950–1988,” International Studies Quarterly, 40: 261–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Page, Benjamin I., and Robert Y. Shapiro (1992), The Rational Public: Fifty Years of Trends in Americans’ Policy Preferences, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Powlick, Philip J. (1991), “The Attitudinal Bases of Responsiveness to Public Opinion among American Foreign Policy Officials,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, 35: 611–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Richman, Alvin (1996), “The Polls—Trends: American Support for International Involvement: General and Specific Components of Post-Cold War Changes,” Public Opinion Quarterly, 60 (Summer): 305–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Rielly, John E., ed. (1999), American Public Opinion and U.S. Foreign Policy 1999, Chicago: The Chicago Council on Foreign Relations.Google Scholar
  20. Shapiro, Robert Y. (1998), “Public Opinion, Elites, and Democracy,” Critical Review, 12 (Fall): 501–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Shapiro, Robert Y., and Benjamin I. Page, 1988. “Foreign Policy and the Rational Public.” Journal of Conflict Resolution, 32: 212–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. — (1994), “Foreign Policy and Public,” in Deese, David A., ed., The New Politics of American Foreign Policy, New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  23. Sobel, Richard, ed. (1993), Public Opinion in U.S. Foreign Policy: The Controversy Over Contra Aid, Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  24. — (1996), “U.S. and European Attitudes toward Intervention in the Former Yugoslavia: Mourir pour la Bosnie,” in Richard H. Ullman, ed., The World and Yugoslavia’s Wars, New York: Council on Foreign Relations.Google Scholar
  25. Wittkopf, Eugene R. (1990), Faces of International: Public Opinion and American Foreign Policy, Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  26. — (1996), “What Americans Really Think About Foreign Policy,” The Washington Quarterly, 19 (3): 91–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Yankelovich, Daniel, and I. M. Destler, eds. (1994), Beyond the Beltway: Engaging the Public in U.S. Foreign Policy, New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  28. Zaller, John (1992), The Nature and Origins of Mass Opinion, New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. — (1998), “Monica Lewinsky’s Contribution to Political Science,” PS: Political Science and Politics, 31 (June): 182–89.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Martin Schain 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert Shapiro

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations