The European International Order (1980)

  • Kai Alderson
  • Andrew Hurrell


The idea of international society inevitably gives rise to questions of boundaries and of identity. If there is such a thing as international society, what are its limits? What is the nature of relations between insiders and outsiders? And what are the criteria for membership? For Bull and the theorists of international society this was one of the principal questions that needed to be addressed in tracing the history of thought on international relations. Moreover, as we have seen, Bull’s conception of international society sees values and a common culture as important potential factors underpinning effective norms and institutions. European international society had, after all, been accompanied by frequent invocations of a common identity and of common cultural values. The transition from a European to a global international society was therefore always going to raise important questions and Bull’s interest was already apparent in the 1960s.* It became central to his work from the mid-1970s (especially after spending 4 months teaching in India in 1974–5). By that time he was arguing that the transition from a European to a global order represented a more fundamental development than the emergence of the power-political and ideological confrontation between East and West.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    A. H. L. Heeren, Handbuch der Geschichte des Europäischen Staatensystem und seiner Kolonien (Göttingen, 1809), trans, as A Manual of the History of the Political System of Europe and of its Colonies (Oxford: Tallboys, 1843); R. B. [NOT C. I.] Mowat, The European States System: A Study of International Relations (London: Oxford University Press, 1923).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    See, especially, Martin Wight, Systems of States (Leicester: Leicester University Press, 1977), Chapter 1.Google Scholar
  3. 4.
    J. P. F. Ancillon, Tableau des Révolutions du Systéme Politique de l’Europe depuis la Fin du Quinzième Siècle (Paris: Anselin et Pochard, 1823).Google Scholar
  4. 8.
    The most important study of all this, which Alexandrowicz told me was the inspiration of his own work, is M. F. Lindley’s The Acquisition and Government of Backward Territories in International Law (London: Longmans, Green, 1926).Google Scholar
  5. 10.
    K. M. Pannikar, Asia and Western Dominance (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1953).Google Scholar
  6. 11.
    Denys Hay, Europe: The Emergence of an Idea (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1957), p. 98.Google Scholar
  7. 13.
    A. J. Toynbee, The World and the West (London: Oxford University Press, 1953).Google Scholar
  8. 14.
    See C. H. Alexandrowicz, An Introduction to the History of the Law of Nations in the East Indies (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1967)Google Scholar
  9. 16.
    Michael Walzer, Just and Unjust Wars: An Argument with Historical Illustrations (New York: Basic Books, 1977).Google Scholar
  10. 17.
    See Adda Bozeman, The Future of Law in a Multicultural World (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1971).Google Scholar
  11. 19.
    See Adda Bozeman, ‘Do Educational and Cultural Exchanges have Political Relevance?’, International Educational and Cultural Exchange (Fall 1969), p. 7.Google Scholar
  12. 21.
    See, for example, Ronald Dworkin, Taking Rights Seriously (London: Duckworth, 1977)Google Scholar
  13. E. B. F. Midgeley, The Natural Law Tradition and the Theory of International Relations (London: Elek, 1975)Google Scholar
  14. Michael Donelan (ed.), The Reason of States (London: Allen & Unwin, 1978), Chapter 4.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kai Alderson
  • Andrew Hurrell

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations