Cocaine and the Andes

  • Patrick L. Clawson
  • Rensselaer W. LeeIII

Abstract

Cocaine is a big business and the Andean countries have small economies. These facts lead to the obvious conclusion that cocaine is an important, or even vital, part of the Andean economy. That view is widely accepted among politicians, commentators, and ordinary people in the United States and, to a lesser extent, in the Andean countries themselves.

Keywords

Europe Radar Morphine Gasoline Alkaloid 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    U.S. Department of State, International Narcotics Control Strategy Report 1996 (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, Publication 10246, 1996), pp. 22–23.Google Scholar
  2. 4.
    U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, Intelligence Division, Operation Breakthrough: Coca Cultivation and Cocaine Base Production in Bolivia, Report No. DEA-94032, (Washington, DC: DEA, July 1994).Google Scholar
  3. 5.
    USAID La Paz, Bolivia’s Coca Sub-Economy 1994 (La Paz: USAID La Paz, June 1995), Table 4.Google Scholar
  4. 8.
    Sergio Uribe, “La Coca,” Bogotá, June 1995, pp. 6, 11; Cuánto S.A., Impact of the Coca in the Peruvian Economy 1980–1992 (Lima: Cuánto S.A., September 1993), p. 8.Google Scholar
  5. 10.
    Thomas Kellerman, “Overall Importance and Impact of the Coca Subsector with Regards to the Economies of the Andean Countries of Bolivia, Colombia, and Peru,” in U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Intelligence and Research and the Central Intelligence Agency, Economics of the Narcotics Industry Conference Report (Washington, DC: State Department and CIA, 1994).Google Scholar
  6. 11.
    Elena Alvarez, “The Political Economy of Coca Production in Bolivia and Peru” (ms.), Center for Policy Research, State University of New York at Albany, July 1993; and Cuánto S.A., Impact of the Coca in the Peruvian Economy 1980–1992. The latter report says cocaine industry employment supported 750,000 people in 155,000 families.Google Scholar
  7. 12.
    USAID Lima, Project Paper: Alternative Development Project (Lima: USAID Lima, 1995), p. 29.Google Scholar
  8. 13.
    USAID La Paz, Bolivia’s Coca Sub-Economy (La Paz: USAID La Paz, September 1992, June 1995). (Two editions of the same study.)Google Scholar
  9. 16.
    National Drug Council, “National Plan for Overcoming the Drug Problem.” (Bogotá: NDC, 1994), pp. 11, 59.Google Scholar
  10. 19.
    Sidney Zabludoff, “Colombian Narcotics Organizations as Business Enterprises,” in U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Research and Intelligence and the Central Intelligence Agency, Economics of the Narcotics Industry Conference Report (Washington DC: State Department and CIA, 1994).Google Scholar
  11. 20.
    Olga Sanmartin, “Después de Cali, Que?” Revista Diners (Bogotá: August 1995), p. 15.Google Scholar
  12. 22.
    Gilberto Arango Londoño, Estructura Economica Columbiana (Bogotá: Colección Profesoras, 1993), p. 93.Google Scholar
  13. 23.
    Dario Betancourt and Martha C. Garcia, Contrabandistas, Marimberos y Mafiosos (Bogotá: Tercer Mundo, 1994), p. 98.Google Scholar
  14. 24.
    Francisco Thoumi, “The Economic Impact of Narcotics in Colombia.” In Peter Smith, ed., Drug Policy in the Americas (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1992), p. 62.Google Scholar
  15. 26.
    DANE (Departamiento Administrativo Nacional de Estadisticas), Colombia Estadistica 1990 (Bogotá: DANE, 1992), p. 422.Google Scholar
  16. 27.
    All data on per capita GNP come from World Bank, World Tables 1994 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994). Constant pesos measure what Colombians’ income can buy inside Colombia. Constant dollars measure what Colombians’ income can buy on the international (dollar-based) market.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 28.
    Francisco Thoumi, Economáa Polática y Narcotráfico (Bogotá: Tercer Mundo, 1994, p. 260.Google Scholar
  18. 31.
    Mark Kleiman, Against Excess: Drug Policy for Results (New York: Basic Books, 1992), p. 301.Google Scholar
  19. 35.
    This analysis of Bolivia’s growth prospects relies on the articles in the twelve-page supplement on Bolivia in The Financial Times, November 9, 1994, as well as on the Economist Intelligence Unit reports.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Patrick L. Clawson and Rensselaer W. Lee III 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patrick L. Clawson
  • Rensselaer W. LeeIII

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations