Like its trading partners in the EU, France has become progressively more trade-oriented since World War II. The degree of openness, measured by the ratio of exports and imports to GDP, amounted to more than 30 per cent at the end of the 1980s, compared to about 11 per cent immediately after the war. The relative importance of foreign trade more than doubled over the 1970s and 1980s. Now, France is simultaneously confronted with the completion of the Single Market and the growing participation in trade of low-wage countries, mainly located in south-east Asia.


Trade Flow Trade Balance Structural Adjustment Employment Change Adjustment Issue 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References and Further Readings

  1. Abd-el-Rahman, K. (1991) ‘Firms’ Competitive and National Comparative Advantages as Joint Determinants of Trade Composition’, Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 127, 83–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bonnaz, H., Courtot, N. and Nivat, D. (1994) ‘Le contenu en emplois des échanges industriels de la France avec les pays enveloppement’, Economie et Statistique, 279–280, 13–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Globerman, S. and Dean, J.W. (1990) ‘Recent Trends in Intra-Industry Trade and their Implications for Future Trade Liberalisation’, Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 126, 25–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Greenaway, D. and Milner, C.R. (1986) The Economics of Intra-Industry Trade, Oxford, Blackwell.Google Scholar
  5. Greenaway, D., Hine, R. and Milner, C. (1994) ‘Country-Specific Factors and the Pattern of Horizontal and Vertical Intra-Industry Trade’, Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 130, 77–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Grubel, H.G. and Lloyd, P.J. (1971) Intra-Industry Trade, London, Mac-millan.Google Scholar
  7. Harfi, M. and Oulmane, N. (1995) ‘Vertical Differentiation and Factor Proportions in French Manufacturing Trade’, Paper presented at the University of Coimbra, November.Google Scholar
  8. Harfi, M. and Montet, C. (1994) ‘Intra-Industry Trade, Specialization and Adjustment in France (1960–1990)’, SPES Workshop No. 6 at the University of Nottingham, September.Google Scholar
  9. Jacobsson, S. (1988) ‘Intra-Industry Specialisation and Development Models for the Capital Goods Sector’, Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 124, 14–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Krugman, P. (1993) ‘What do Undergrads Need To Know About Trade’, The American Economic Review, Papers and Proceedings, 83 (2), 23–6.Google Scholar
  11. Lancaster, K. (1982) ‘Comments on Krugman’, in Bhagwati, J. (ed.), Import Competition and Response, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  12. Lawrence, R. (1987) ‘Trade Performance as a Constraint on European Growth’, in Lawrence, R. and Schultze, G.L. (eds), Barriers to European Growth, A Transatlantic View, Washington: Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
  13. Mathieu, C. and Sterdyniak, H. (1994) ‘L’émergence de l’Asie en développement menace-t-elle l’emploi en France?, Observations et diagnostics économiques, 48, January.Google Scholar
  14. Messerlin, P.A. (1995) ‘The Impact of Trade and Foreign Investment on Labour Markets: The French Case’, The OECD Jobs Study Working Paper Series, No. 9, Paris, OECD.Google Scholar
  15. Muchielli, J.L. and Mazerolle, F. (1989) ‘Commerce intrabranche et intégration européenne’, in Laussel, D. and Montet, C. (eds), Commerce international en concurrence imparfaite, Economica, Paris.Google Scholar
  16. Oulmane, N. (1994) ‘Echange intra-branche et différenciation verticale des produits’, Mémoire de DEA, Université de Montpellier I.Google Scholar
  17. Ray, E.J. (1987) ‘Evidence on the Political Economy of Protection: A Survey’, Mimeo, Ohio State University.Google Scholar
  18. Tortensson, J. (1991), ‘Quality differentiation and factor proportions in international trade: an empirical test of the Swedish case’, Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 127, 183–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Vimont, C. (1993) Le commerce extérieur franpais créateur ou déstructeur d’emplois?, Paris, Economica.Google Scholar
  20. Wood, A. (1994) North-South Trade, Employment and Inequality, Oxford, Clarendon Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Centre of Research in European Development and International Trade (CREDIT) 1999

Authors and Affiliations

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations